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UAB BY 330 - Transcription

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C. Transcriptioni. Read 5’ end to 3’ endii. Every gene has coding strand (sense gene) and template (antisense gene)1. Coding (sense) is drawn 5’ to 3’2. Template (antisense) is drawn 3’-5’iii. Basic physical process1. In order for transcription to occur RNA polymerase I, II, III must recognize some series of nucleotides that is called a promoter region2. RNA polymerase is very large, covers about 16 bases3. Promoter tells it which nucleotide is number one and the polymerase will pull it apart and separate to 2 single strands, a code strand and a template strand4. RNA polymerase starts adding complimentary bases to the template strand in the form of ATP for Adenine, adding from 5-3 prime end, (G complimentary base will come in at the cost of GTP, C in the form of CTP, etc).5. Code= gene (5’-3’), Template is complimentary (3’-5’), and the strand of RNA strand looks like the code (5’-3’) but with Uracil and ribose sugar6. RNA polymerase adds about 30 bases a second, estimated to open 3-6 helices at a time7. As the polymerase moves on, the RNA strand is knocked out and the DNA helix reforms, because it has a greater affinity for those bases and it is a more stable structure in the helixa. RNA as it is being synthesized is being pushed out8. RNA recognizes a termination sequence and the entire RNA sequence is released in full and DNA reforms helix9. Can open over and over and get the same transcript from the same gene all the timeiv. For RNA polymerase to recognize the promoter region, there are 2 sequences that need to be conserved, and nothing else matters (TTGACA, and TATATT) this is one example for prokaryotic DNA promotersv. A promoter region is about 35 bases for a prokaryote with exceptionsBY 330 1st Edition Lecture 9Outline of Last Lecture V. MitochondriaA. Energy productionB. Unique ability to ‘apsorp’C. CytochromesD. StructureVI. Electron Transport ChainA. ProcessB. Energy CountVII. Protein ProductionA. Cell’s MaterialsB. Must make RNA to make proteinOutline of Current Lecture C. TranscriptionCurrent LectureC. Transcriptioni. Read 5’ end to 3’ endii. Every gene has coding strand (sense gene) and template (antisense gene)1. Coding (sense) is drawn 5’ to 3’2. Template (antisense) is drawn 3’-5’iii. Basic physical processThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.1. In order for transcription to occur RNA polymerase I, II, III must recognize some series of nucleotides that is called a promoter region 2. RNA polymerase is very large, covers about 16 bases3. Promoter tells it which nucleotide is number one and the polymerase will pull it apart and separate to 2 single strands, a code strand and a template strand4. RNA polymerase starts adding complimentary bases to the template strand in the form of ATP for Adenine, adding from 5-3 prime end, (G complimentary base will come in at the cost of GTP, C in the form of CTP, etc). 5. Code= gene (5’-3’), Template is complimentary (3’-5’), and the strand of RNA strand looks like the code (5’-3’) but with Uracil and ribose sugar6. RNA polymerase adds about 30 bases a second, estimated to open 3-6 helices at a time 7. As the polymerase moves on, the RNA strand is knocked out and the DNA helix reforms, because it has a greater affinity for those bases and it is a more stable structure in the helixa. RNA as it is being synthesized is being pushed out8. RNA recognizes a termination sequence and the entire RNA sequence is released in full and DNA reforms helix9. Can open over and over and get the same transcript from the same gene all the time This is an example of prokaryotic mRNA code strand: 5’ TAGTTATTGACATGA…CTACTATATTCT…CAATAGGAT 3’These underlined strands had to be conserved for RNA polymerase to recognize it as promoter region, on average there are 17 nucleotides in between the 2 mandatory conserved regions, that don’t matter what they are, they are inert. The TATATT starts after 10 nucleotides upstream^ this A is the first nucleotide in gene and G is the second so those are positive 1 and 2 and so forth downstream, while the upstream nucleotides (T, A) are negative 1 and 2 and so forth, everything upstream of the A is the promoter regioniv. For RNA polymerase to recognize the promoter region, there are 2 sequences that need to be conserved, and nothing else matters (TTGACA, and TATATT) this is one example for prokaryotic DNA promoters v. A promoter region is about 35 bases for a prokaryote with exceptions5’ ….ACACAGCCGTTCCGCGGCAGTTTTAGTA… 3’^^^These bolded and underlined strands are very vulnerable for attack and are called ‘self complimenting’strands, these will fold back on each other to protect its 3’ end the average is 8 nucleotide sequences that are self complimentary within several nucleotides of the termination to protect this end. The TTTT is the termination region of the strand that tells RNA polymerase to stop. “Self-complimenting” strands look like this:Example of a Gene in a Eukaryotic System: Globin Gene from a hemoglobin - this gene is 589 nucleotides in length - mRNA is made from this gene is only 700 *difference in eukaryotic cell v. prokaryotic- because it is smaller, we know it has been modified post transcription- the protein has 146 amino acids, meaning that there are only 438 nucleotides… where do all the other nucleotides go from the 7005’ 3’589 genesRNA polymerase II transcribes DNA5’ 3’ ^5’ Non-coding region^ ^3’ Non- coding region^ ^ over transcribed by as much as 1500 nucleotides because does not read or recognize the quadruple T-------------- GCCG UUUUGA


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