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UAB BY 330 - ETC and Protein Making

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V. MitochondriaA. Energy production1. Takes extra electrons and turns them into ATP (not heat)2. Make additional energy from electrons produced in Glycolysis and Krebs CycleB. Unique ability to ‘apsorp’ light (absorbs light)- has to do with movement across membranesC. Cytochromes- lots of types and have a unique ability at the heart (core) of mitochondria1. Cytochomes are made of multiple different macromolecules (proteins, lipids, carbs etc)2. There is a metal (Fe or Cu)a) Reaction: Fe2+  Fe3+ + e-b) Metals either take on an electron or dump an e- *this is a unique feature of cytochromes associated with mitochondriaD. Structure1. Contains two membranes, creating an outer space (cytoplasm), intermembrane space, and inner space called the matrix2. Cytochromes are located in intermembrane space and make up the complexesa) 3-5 complexes have been identified-(biochemical analyses have never been seen in live action)--- so we will go with 4 cytochromes , numbered I, II, III and IV.b) Cytochrome names= A, A3, b, C, C1VI. Electron transport chainA. Process3. At Cytochrome Complex I NADH is oxidized to NAD and H+ is released into the matrixa) Compounds are more stable when they are oxidized , not reducedb) Does not want to be reduced (unstable), therefore there is nothing for complex I to do with its electrons, except pass them to Complex II(1) this occurs rapidly and transiently(2) want to get rid of electrons because electrons make them unstable4. Electron is passed from cytochrome complex I to II to III to IV), pumping H’s across H+ are “electron groupies” and follow the electrons5. 6 H’s are moved into spacea) *Note we have made no energy, all we have done is move electrons6. There is a final electron acceptor that is found at the end of the chain in the mitochondria.a) for most animals this is molecular oxygen (1/2 O2)(1) the oxygen accepts the electrons and the H groupies follow, creating metabolic water(2) this metabolic water produced is a large reason why we wake up after not having drank anything for a few hours and having to void our bladderb) some animals use sulfur instead of oxygen as the final electron acceptor(1) we use sulfur too but we do not really know how(2) Some tissues do not get oxygen quick enough, so if put a little sulfur in the mix, it helps. We can not use THAT much sulfur, but we can use a little(3) some animals use it ‘All day long’ – like Clams (sulfide stinks)(4) there might be benefits to sulfur spring baths, but we are unsure7. No energy has been made yet, but we have STORED energy in the form of a gradienta) want to move from high concentration to low concentrationb) here, we have a Chemical proton Gradient – a battery of sortsc) also have an Electrical Gradientd) Technical name: Proton Motor Force8. Proton Motor Force – ATPasea) mitochondria inner membrane acts as a great barrier, creating a charged gradientb) the Protein F1ATPase creates a lollipop shaped channel, specific for protonsc) protons tickle the protein and the protein does the work  turning ADP into ATPd) 2 protons are required to make a single ATP9. Sum ATPa) NADH gives up 2 electronsb) Stoichiometry: NADH 2e-  6H+  3ATPc) 1 pair e- = 3ATPd) *** this is how CO kills, CO binds to 1 complex and makes it unusable – if there is too much , they can not recoverE. Energy count1. Glucose (6C)a) Glycolysis 2 ATP 2b) PDH 2 NADH 6c) Krebs 6 NADH 182. FADH  2e-  4H+  2ATPa) no binding site for FADH on complex I, so it must bind to complex II to get less H+ and therefore ATP out of its electrons3. Efficiency: 277/ 686 = about .4 , therefore 40% efficiencya) true efficiency of breakdown is less than 40%4. Na+/K+ pump uses SO MUCH ENERGY, one ATP per net proton moved!A. Cell’s materials5. Pile of energy6. Genes (DNA)F. Must make RNA to make protein1. How to make RNA – structure is very similar to DNA except:a) No T, just Ub) –OH group on number 2 carbon2. 8 major classes of RNAa) mRNA- (messenger) always gets the attention – Very unstable, but is essential – makes a tiny percentage of what we actually have in RNAb) tRNA- (transfer)c) rRNA (most abundant- ribosomal)d) SnRNA (small nuclear RNA) – regulatory molecule(1) produced in the nucleus and stays there only about 100nt in length, Not big, Uracil rich, it is a catalyst (works like an enzyme)e) ScRNA (small cytoplasmic RNA) – microRNAs(1) microRNAs from what we eat may affect the way we thinkf) 5sRNA- relative sedimentation compared to control  small rRNA (not absolute size)g) interference RNAs, others…3. To make RNA- must have DNA template to be read by RNA polymerase enzymea) RNA polymerase- HUGE, polymeric, protein – like a horse saddle , covers 60 base pairs and there are 3 types:(1) RNA polymerase I. – large rRNA *only transcribes DNA whose genes code for large rRNA(2) RNA polymerase II. – mRNA, SnRNA *only transcribes for mRNA and SnRNA(3) RNA polymerase III. – tRNA (SmRNA) 5sRNA(small rRNA), ScRNABY 330 1st Edition Lecture 8 Outline of Last Lecture I. GlycolysisA. OverviewB. Control of GlycolysisII. GluconeogenesisIII. Pyruvate into MitochondriaA. Pyruvate is transported into Mitochondria as 3 carbon unitB. ReactionIV. Krebs CycleA. Acetyl CoA converted to citrateB. 7 reactions in the cycleC. Control pointsD. ProductsE. Pathways remain the same for Fatty acid and Protein energy productionOutline of Current Lecture V. MitochondriaA. Energy productionB. Unique ability to ‘apsorp’C. CytochromesD. StructureVI. Electron Transport ChainA. ProcessB. Energy CountVII. Protein ProductionA. Cell’s MaterialsB. Must make RNA to make proteinCurrent LectureV. MitochondriaA. Energy production1. Takes extra electrons and turns them into ATP (not heat)2. Make additional energy from electrons produced in Glycolysis and Krebs CycleB. Unique ability to ‘apsorp’ light (absorbs light)- has to do with movement across membranesThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.C. Cytochromes- lots of types and have a unique ability at the heart (core) of mitochondria1. Cytochomes are made of multiple different macromolecules (proteins, lipids, carbs etc) 2. There is a metal (Fe or Cu) a) Reaction: Fe2+  Fe3+ + e-b) Metals either take on an electron or dump an e- *this is a unique feature of cytochromes associated with mitochondriaD. Structure1. Contains two


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