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UNCW PSY 322 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSY 322 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures 1-8Lecture 1 and 2Chapter 1: The Science and Practice of Abnormal Child Psychology1) What is “prevalence?” (PAGE 3)-Prevalence refers to the percentage of individuals in a given population who have a medical or psychological condition-Epidemiologists are scientists who study the prevalence of medical and psychological disorders-To estimate prevalence, they collect data from thousands of individuals in the population and record their physical or psychological health2) What are barriers to mental health treatment identified by Tolan and Dodge (2005)? (PAGE6)-Barriers to children’s access to high-quality, empirically based mental health services include…I. Financial hardship- interferes with children’s access to comprehensive treatment (mental health treatment and medical treatment do not receive equal coverage form insurance companies in the US) II. Even if families can pay for high-quality mental health services, they may be unable to find these services. This treatment is not available in many communities. III. There are not enough experts in child and adolescent mental health to satisfy the need for services. The current mental health care system is able to address the needs of about 10 percent of all youths with psychological problems. IV. Stigma can interfere with children’s access to mental health treatment. There are negativeconnotations associated with both diagnosis and treatment. 3) According to DSM-5 what are the essential components of a mental disorder? (PAGE 9)-It not only reflects Wakefield’s notion of harmful dysfunction but also emphasizes the role of impairment and psychological distress in differentiating normal vs. abnormal behavior. According to the DSM-5, a mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological or developmental processes underlying mental functioning. 4) What does "probabilistic epigenesis" mean? (PAGE 11)-The way biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors interact with each other to influence development over time. The unfolding of development is probabilistic, meaning a person’s developmental outcome can vary depending on the interplay of many biological and environmental factors. -Definition: The complex transaction of biogenetic, psychological, familial, and socio-cultural factors that shape development over time.5) How do developmental psychopathologists differentiate normal and abnormal child behavior? (PAGE 16)-Our ability to recognize, understand, and treat childhood disorders depends on our knowledge of normal child development. Developmental psychopathologists believe that abnormal behavior can shed light on normal child and adolescent development. Youths who show delays in mastering developmental tasks can teach us about how development typically occurs.6) Differentiate equifinality from multifinality. (PAGE 16)-Equifinality: occurs when children with different developmental histories show similar developmental outcomes. It makes definitive statements about the CAUSES of psychopathology extremely difficult. Because of it, we usually cannot infer the causes of children’s behavioral problems based on their current symptoms. -Multifinality: the tendency of children with similar early experiences to show different social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. It limits statements we can make about PROGNOSIS.7) What is the scientist-practitioner model approach to understanding and treating child psychopathology? (PAGE 19)-It assumes that psychological research and clinical practice are interdependent and equally important facets of psychological training. Alleviate stress and promote the welfare of their clients. Both scienceand practice of psychology are important to the discipline. 8) According to your text, how can scientifically uninformed psychological practice hurt clients? (PAGE 20)I. Ineffective interventions can cost significant time and moneyII. Families who participate in ineffective treatment can lose hope in the therapeutic process and in psychological treatmentIII. Interventions that lack empirical support can be harmful for clients, families, and society. Ex: Autism treatment. IV. Can end up causing unnecessary worry parents and stigmatize young clients.9) What is Wakefield's (1992) concept of "harmful dysfunction"? (PAGE 7)-Way to differentiate abnormality form normal functioning. -Deviation from normality does not necessarily mean a person has a mental disorder. A disorder existsonly when two criteria are met…I. Person must show a dysfunction (failure in some internal mechanism to perform a function for which it was naturally selected.II. The dysfunction must cause harm (limit or threaten the person in some way)10) What is the main difference between the APA General Ethical Principles and the Ethical Standards? (PAGE 23)-Ethics refers to the standard of behavior that is determined to be acceptable for a given profession. -APA ethics code protects the welfare of individuals with whom psychologists work and to educate psychologists, students, and the general public about the ethical practice of psychology. -APA ethics code consists of 4 partsI. IntroductionII. PreambleIII. Five general principlesIV. Specific ethical standards-Intro and preamble describe the purpose, organization, and scope of the ethics code-The five general ethical principles are broad ideals for the professional behavior of psychologists. A. Beneficence and Non-maleficence B. Fidelity and responsibilityC. IntegrityD. JusticeE. Respect for peoples rights and dignity-Ethical standards: specific rules that guide professional practice. They govern all professional activitiesincluding assessment, therapy, research, and teaching. 11) Define confidentiality within psychological practice and the limits of confidentiality. (PAGE 24)-Confidentiality refers to the expectation that information that clients provide during the course of treatment will not be disclosed to others. It serves two purposes..I. Increase likelihood that people in need of mental health services will seek treatmentII. Allows clients to disclose info more freely and facilitates the therapeutic process.-Ethical and legal right of clients-Limitations…I. If the client is in imminent danger to self or others, the therapist is required to break confidentiality to


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