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SU PSC 124 - Gender Theories

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PSC 124 1st Edition Lecture 7 Outline of Last Lecture I. Overview of theoriesII. The waning of warIII. Liberalism IV. Comparison of liberalism and realismV. Social theoriesOutline of Current Lecture I. Peace StudiesII. Postmodernism III. Gender TheoriesCurrent LectureI. Peace Studies- challenges realism and liberalism- shift away from only interstate level- considers broad conception of social relations at other levels (individual, domestic, global), with peace at the center- considers possibility for transformation of society )an international community, sense of world citizenship)- peace is related to:1. justice2. productive conflict resolution3. economic fairness4. status of women and identity groups5. cross cultural understanding- conflict at individual/ group level- conflict reduction processes1. mediation: a situation where a neutral 3rd party assists 2 parties to resolve a conflict; helps parties reach a conclusion2. arbitration: behaves like a mediator but the arbitrator determines the outcome3. negotiation: 2 parties talk without 3rd party - social change and positive peaceThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- negative peace: lack of war- shuttle diplomacy: a 3rd party shuttles between parties who cannot talk to each other- citizen to citizen diplomacy: citizens from opposing countries work together on projects or things of the like to keep a relationship going between the countries- negotiation principles: 1. confidence building: parties devising a way to get around a conflict to build trust2. fractionation: break issues apart; disaggregate into smaller specific issues; deal with one at a time, least threatening first; builds first; easier to reach agreement one step at a time3. linkage: determine order of importance; if reversed for two parties, pair A’s most important with B’s least important to smooth the way into compromise- militarism 1. militarism as an idea- glorification of war2. militarism as structuring of society- military industrial complex (relationship between military, military industry, and the economy3. structured violence: violent outcomes because of the structures of a society i.e. racism, discrimination; poverty- positive peace resolves underlying reasons for war through transformation of society by1. removing structural violence2. eliminating militaristic culture3. building structures of peaceful conflict resolution4. creating justice - social movements1. target certain issues2. sway public opinion- nonviolence 1. active process (not the same as pacifism)2. unwavering commitment to peaceful process3. unwavering commitment to justice4. a tool of the powerlessII. Postmodernism- considers texts, images, other outlets for ideas (ideas carry power) - deconstructs language- which words are included, which words are excluded, what images portray and what messages they send- re realism: considers the language of realism and what that reveals about underlying assumptions- deconstructing realism:1. no single objective reality since “reality” is constructed; multiple realities2. ergo realism can’t justify claims e.g. states as unitary actors, coherent sets of interest3. states as fictional entities4. considers power in the context of defining “reality”III. Gender Theories - Three perspectives:1. difference feminism2. liberal feminism3. postmodernist feminism- difference feminists1. realism rests on masculine view of the world+ autonomy+ moral reasoning: abstract rules of right and wrong and individual rights+ war and fighting2. feminine view + relationship and connection+ moral reasoning: context matters, preservation of relationships+ international organizations+ peace and cooperation- valuing the unique contributions of women as women- liberal feminists1. women and men are equal, not different2. focus on exclusion of women from+ leadership+ combat positions+ military- combat, leadership + foreign relations- key foreign policy positions+ academia3. women likely to behave like men in a similar context4. by not including women, talent is wasted5. rejects claims based on gender stereotypes- feminist postmodernists1. deconstruct with view to uncovering the influence of gender2. critical of difference feminists- glorifying traditional femininity 3. critical of liberal feminists- simple inclusion of women ignores power construction4. rejects assumptions about gender made by both difference and liberal feminists- poverty: studies show that when women hold assets or have incomes, family money is more likely to be spent on nutrition, medicine, and housing and children are healthier. Men spend more of the family income on alcohol and tobacco- extremism: greater involvement of women in society and the economy appears to undermine terrorism and


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