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UTC SOC 3310 - How Humans Recognize Emotions

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SOC 3310 1st Edition Lecture 4Outline of Last Lecture I. Emotional Attachment: Central to human’s survival?II. What emotions develop in children?a. Basic emotionsb. Social emotionsIII. What is Emotion? Three Parts:a. Cognitiveb. Physiologicalc. BehavioralOutline of Current Lecture I. Theories of Emotiona. James-Lange Theory (1985)b. Schachter& Singer’s two-factor theory and experimentc. Dutton &Eron (1974) d. Evolutionary Theory (Darwin, 1872;Izard,1984)Current LectureII. Theories of Emotiona. James-Lange Theory (1985) (Does not work)i. We consciously perceive and label emotion by looking inward at our arousal and evaluating it. Bear-Arousal (tremble)-Evaluate (arousal as fear) “I feel afraid because I tremble.”ii. Argues that for each emotion we have a different pattern of physiological responses (heart rate, GSR, respiration), and these lead to different perceptions of emotion. There is not much evidence for this theory, and the very subtle differences we can detect among emotions are almost impossible for one to detect.iii. There is no evidence that emotions differ physiologically, except for interest.b. Schachter& Singer’s two-factor theory and experimenti. Each emotion (joy,anger) has the same physiological basis (heart rate, GSR, respiration) We perceive emotion by looking “outward” to the environment to explain arousal. Emotional experience These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.depends on physiological arousal and cognitive evaluation (a.k.a. labeling) ex. Bear-Arousal(tremble)-Evaluate(Environment externalcue). “I label my trembling as fear because I appraise the situation as dangerous.”ii. Argues that each emotion has the same physiological basis and welabel our emotions by looking around at the environment. The emphasis on cognition in interpreting and labeling emotion has remained influential and the theory seem particularly important interms of understanding “emotional situations”-like embarrassment. The theory works best when we are in novel situations, and arousal is moderate. Although there is a fair amount of evidence for the theory with adults, current research suggests that emotions are not as malleable as Schhachter& Singer thought.iii. Limitations: Can’t explain the presence of emotions in newborns. Advantage: Cognitive aspect of theory has remained influential.c. Dutton &Eron (1974) i. Field study on the misattribution of emotions. Naturalistic experiment on the misattribution of emotion supporting the two-factor theory: men who were aroused mislabeling fear as lust. ii. High bridge vs. Low bridge. Men on the higher bridge aroused by fear were more likely to call back an attractive women, who stopped them on the bridge to take an academic survey and gave them her number for survey results, to ask her on a date.d. Evolutionary Theory (Darwin, 1872;Izard,1984)i. Recently gained importance. They seem to best explain the development of “basic” emotions that are present shortly after birth, and the cross-cultural expression of emotion in infants. Evolutionary theories argue that emotion does not require cognition, a major departure from Schachter& Singers’ two factor theory.1. Emotions are innate reactions to certain stimuli and have adaptive value.2. Emotions evolved before, though through evolution3. Born with primary or basic emotions, and emotions blend with development4. Cognition is not required for emotion to occurii. Example of emotion without cognition: Zanjoc’sexperiments on the “mere-exposure effect” showing “feeling” does not always require thinking. In the experiment Zanjoc showed 50 Chinesesymbols to non-Chinese speaking people. Afterwards he showed the same group 100 Chinese symbols(50 new and 50 from last set). In asking participants if they recognized the symbols they rarely recognized one, however they seemed to like the appearance ones they had previously been shown in the experiment.e.


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