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CU-Boulder PSYC 2012 - bio psych study guide 1

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II. Study Guide for Exam IA. Lecture 1 Intro to Biological Psychology1. Be able to know the difference between a within-groups design and a between-groups design.- Between Group Design: an experiment that had 2+ groups of subjects each being tested by a different factor at the same time- Within Group Design: where participants are exposed to all variable testing groups2. Be able to define the different principles of biology discussed in lecture 1.- Anatomy: the study of different organs and their structures- Cellular Anatomy: the study of cell organelles and their structures- Physiology: the study of how living systems function- Genetics: the study of how genes and evolution affect the biological processes- Developmental Biology: the study of how an organism and its tissues are created during development- Biochemistry: the study of how molecules of life and how they influence living systems3. Be able to discuss the pros and cons of animal experimentation for studying biological psychology- Pros: better understanding, knowing exactly what affects certain processes, control over variables- Animals: fewer ethical issues, reproduce and recover faster, larger and similar subject pool, better control of environment and variables, very simple Nervous System- Humans: can self report, has exact Nervous System we want to understand- Cons: possibility of killing subjects, subjects aren’t always able to be in full control, Nervous System processes aren’t always the same- Animals: very simple nervous system, not all the same processes as humans, can’t followinstructions, can’t tell you how they feel- Humans: ethical issues, can skew the data4. List the different types of biopsychological manipulations and be able to tell which can be used on animals, which can be used on humans, and which can be used on both.- 1. Genetic Manipulations: selective breeding, transgenic manipulation (ANIMALS)- 2. Neuropharmacology: giving drugs to the subject to alter brain chemistry (BOTH)- 3. Electrical Stimulation: stimulating the brain regions with electricity (BOTH)- 4. Trauma Studies: observing damage to a brain due to an accident (HUMANS)- 5. Lesion Studies: intentional damage to brain, temp. or permanent (ANIMALS)5. List the 4 types of psychobiological outcome variables discussed in Lecture 1, be able to describe what each is and give examples of them.- 1. Neuroimaging: non-invasive ways to look at the brain structures and their activity (MRI, fMRI, PET scans)- 2. Electrophysiology: measuring the electrical activity in the brain (EEG, EMG, patch clamping)- 3. Neurochemistry: measuring neurotransmitters, metabolites, and signaling molecules- 4. Neurocytology: staining cells to see anatomy or activity of brain connectionsB. Lecture 2 Anatomy of the Nervous System1. Be able to describe the different branches of the nervous system—central vs. peripheral, somatic vs. autonomic, parasympathetic vs. sympathetic, etc.,--and be able to identify which major structures (cranial nerves, spinal nerves, spinal cord, brain, etc.) belong to each and what the function of each is.- Nervous System: organs, tissues, and cellular structures that coordinate the actions of an organism that transmits signals between parts of its body- Central NS: components of the NS in the skull and spine- Peripheral NS: components of the NS through out the rest of the body- Nerves: bundles of 2 way nerve chords that transmit electrical messages- Ganglia: Clusters of nerve cell bodies, close to the spinal chord- Somatic NS: nerves carrying sensory information to CNS, nerves carrying motor commands to the body- Autonomic NS: nerves that regulate automatic processes- Parasympathetic NS: regulates bodily functions, relaxed- Sympathetic NS: regulates body functions when body is threatened, “fight or flight”2. Know what the dorsal and ventral roots are and which direction they carry information.- Dorsal Root: bring sensory information from the body to the CNS (Afferent/ back of spine)- Ventral Roots: take motor commands from the CNS to the body (Efferent/ front of spine)3. Be able to identify the basic brain structural terms: longitudinal fissure, hemisphere, corpus callosum, sulci, gyri, etc.- Longitudinal Fissure: separating of the 2 hemispheres- Hemisphere: one half of the brain- Symmetrical: both have sensory and motor areas- Asymmetrical: language center is dominate in the left (for right handed people), and spatial navigation is dominate in the right (for right handed people)- Contralateral: right brain controls the left side of the body, left brain controls the right side of the body- Corpus Callosum: bundle of nerves connecting the two hemispheres- Cortex: layers of cells on the outer part of the brain that resemble wrinkles- Gyri/ Gyrus: bulges or ridges on the brain’s surface- Sulci/ Sulcus: groves or indentations on the brain’s surface- Nuclei: the clusters of nerve cells/ neurons deep in the brain4. Be able to describe the ways in which the brain is symmetrical as well as in which ways it is NOT symmetrical.- DESCRIBED ABOVE BELOW “HEMISPHERE”5. Know the 3 different structural subdivisions of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) and the main function of the hindbrain and forebrain.- Hind Brain: located at the base of the neck, regulates functions that are basic and critical for life- Mid Brain: above the hind brain in the middle of the brain, mainly deals with sensory information and memory- Fore Brain: top and front of the brain, unique to humans, where conscious thoughts and memories and emotions are created6. Know the function of the meninges, ventricles, cerebral vasculature, and choroid plexus and be ableto recognize the diseases associated with each if discussed and their symptoms.- Meninges: membranes surrounding and protecting the brain- Dura Mater: outer most layer, very tough- Arachnoid Membrane: spider web like middle layer- Pia Mater: adheres to the brain and spinal chord- Meningitis: infection/ inflammation of the membranes, viral or bacterial, causes headaches, confusion, altered consciousness, vomiting, can’t tolerate light or loud noises- Ventricles: large fluid filled chambers (4) that contain Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)- Choroid Plexus produces the CSF, and eventually leaks it out - Glymphetic System flushes the CSF and toxins out of the body (mostly at night)- Hydrocephalus: blockage of the draining of CSF causing the ventricles to swell, symptoms show swelling, “sun downing”


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