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ECU GEOL 1500 - Mineral Chemistry - Notes - Fall 2014

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AS IT RELATES TO MINERALSTHE NATURE OF MATTER“Information and Cartoons on Atoms”“Interactive Periodic Chart”CHEMICAL ZONATIONBONDING OF MATTERSTATES OF MATTERBASIC CHEMISTRYAS IT RELATES TO MINERALSTHE NATURE OF MATTERAtoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons and are the smallest fraction of an element that can exist and still show unique characteristics of that element. Atoms can differ in atomic number (number of protons), mass number (number of protons and neutrons), and size, which is a function of the electron configuration.“Information and Cartoons on Atoms”<http://education.jlab.org/atomtour/index.html><http://education.jlab.org/atomtour/listofparticles.html> Click on all “Fun Facts!”Protons have a + charge and contain one mass unit.Electrons have a - charge and contain negligible mass.Neutrons have no charge and contain one mass unit.Atomic Number = the number of protons that an atom of an element contains. This number is unique for each element.Atomic Mass/Weight = the number of protons plus neutrons that an atom of an element contains. This number may vary for atoms of the same element.An Element is a substance that cannot be decomposed into another substance except by radioactivedecay. Each element has unique number of protons, which is called its atomic number. The atomic number of an element is denoted with a numeric subscript as shown below. The atomic mass number or atomic weight of an element is denoted with a numeric superscript as shown below.Chemical Notation - 12C235U 6 92An Isotope is one of two or more forms of an element, which has the same number of protons (atomic number) in the nucleus, but has a variable number of neutrons in the nucleus. So, an isotope of an element has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons; thus, each isotope of a given element will have a different mass number. Examples are shown below.12C and 14C1H and 2H235U and 238U 6 61 1 92 92About Atoms and Sub-Atomic ParticlesIons - Electrically unbalanced atoms or group of atoms. Ions can be either positively or negatively charged. Ions: <http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=gch3604> Cations lose an electron(s) so they have a net + charge (e.g., Na+, Ca2+)Anions gain an electron(s) so they have a net - charge (e.g., Cl-, O2-, CO32-)“Interactive Periodic Chart”<http://www.webelements.com/>CHEMICAL ZONATIONThe 8 most abundant elements in the Whole Earth by weight percent are Iron (Fe) (35%), Oxygen (O2) (30%), Silicon (Si) (15%), Magnesium (Mg) (13%), Nickel (Ni) (2.4%), Sulfur (S) (1.9%), Calcium (Ca) (1.1%), and Aluminum (Al) (1.1%). Total = 99.5%, and the first 4 make up more than 90%.The 8 most abundant elements in the Earth’s Crust by weight percent are Oxygen (O2) (46%), Silicon (Si) (28%), Aluminum (Al) (8%), Iron (Fe) (6%), Calcium (Ca) (2.4%), Sodium (Na) (2.3%), Potassium (K) (2.1%), and Magnesium (Mg) (4%). So, the lighter crust is depleted in Iron (Fe).The italicized elements are far more abundant in the Earth’s crust than in the Whole Earth. This uneven distribution of elements in the Earth is called Chemical Zonation.ElementWt.% in WholeEarthWt. % inCrustOxygen 30 46Iron 35 6Silicon 15 28Magnesium 13 4Nickel 2.4 <1Calcium 1.1 2.4Aluminum 1.1 8Sodium +Potassium<1 4.4BONDING OF MATTERWhat are bonds?Bonds are the "glue" that holds atoms together into groups that we call molecules. Actually, all chemical bonds are caused by the simultaneous attraction of two (or more) atom's positive nuclei, to the atoms'negative electrons. Therefore, all chemical bonds are formed because of electrostatic attraction. Bonding is controlled by the availability of the electrons in the outermost orbital shell of an atom. Atoms bond by transferring or sharing electrons to have full outermost electron shells or energy levels.I. Molecular Bonds - Three Main Types of Bonding that Hold Molecules Together Are: A. Ionic - gain or lose electron(s) in the outer shell or transfer electrons between the outer shells of two atoms. These bonds form between the atoms of elements that a are far apart on the Periodic Chart. Example is NaCl.B. Covalent - electrons are shared between the nuclei of 2 atoms. These bonds form between the atoms of elements that are close together on the Periodic Chart. Example is Water.C. Metallic - electrons are shared among the nuclei of many atoms forming electron clouds. Substances with metallic bonds make good conductors. Examples include gold, copper, silver (Ag), and platinum.STATES OF MATTER(All States of Matter Can Be Compressed)Watch this video. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbUTffUsXOM> Gas has no definite shape or volume. An example is the atmosphere.Liquids have definite volume but no definite shape. Examples include the oceans and outer core.Solids have definite volume and shape. Solids always resist any change in shape due to applied stresses. Examples include the crust, mantle, and inner core.Three States of Matter for H2O in Phase DiagramSolid-Liquid-Gas Phase Diagrams


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