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UM PSYX 230 - Developmental Psychology 01.27.2015 Lecture Notes

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Developmental PsychologyDr. Erin YosaiJanuary 27, 2015Introduction School psychology – Clinical psychology combined with educational concepts Self-identified “detectives,” they try to figure out why children aren’t succeeding Have to look at ALL aspects of a child’s life What is development? Development – Physical and psychological changes in the individual over a lifetime. Developmental psychology – The systematic and scientific study of changes in human behaviors and mental activities over time. Key phrase: Over time Changes are quick and impressive- Ex. Newborn babies Studies the “how’s and why’s” of development Works towards the enhancement of development Developmental Science – The interdisciplinary field of research concerned with studies and explanations of human development  Interdisciplinary – biological, social, cultural  Theories – Sets of ideas or propositions that help to organize or explain observable phenomena A good theory goes beyond description and explanation It leads to predictions about behavior This class uses theories for each part of a lifespan and combines theories to study development Social Policy – Programs and plans established by local, regional, or national public and private organizations and agencies Designed to achieve a particular social purpose or goal Put in place to enhance development of people in our society Ex. No child left behind, maternity/paternity leave, domestic violence programs, seatbelt use Large range of policies Five Major Themes in Developmental Psychology Nature/Nurture Debate: The theoretical controversy over whether development is the result of the child’s genetic endowment or environmental influences Children are active participants in the process of their own development Philosophers (3000 B.C.)- Plato – We’re born with all of our knowledge Life is about unlocking inner knowledge This is also called Nativism- Aristotle – Tabula Rasa We are blank slates We are shaped by surroundings This is called Empiricism- Genetics and environment both influence our development Ex. Dr. Yosai was drawn to teaching because she was raised in an environment whereeducation was important (Parents were teachers.) Sociocultural Context Children grow up in a large social community- Family and peers Culture – Customs, values and beliefs about the proper way to rear children and the ultimategoals for their development- Ex. Dr. Yosai is studying “where you grew up” and its effects on development Continuous vs. Discontinuous Continuous – New attainments in thinking, language, and social behavior are characterized by gradual, steady, small quantitative advances Discontinuous – A child’s progress is explained in terms of a series of stages- Abrupt or rapid changes resulting in a dramatic reorganization in how children perceive, think, feel or behave are interpreted as qualitative advances in development- Sigmund Freud’s 5 Stages of Development Oral – Infancy This is why babies shove things in their mouths Anal – Toddlers Potty-training Phallic – Pre K  Girls have cooties, boys are icky, etc. Latent – 6 to 11 Not a lot going on, more focused on learning and playing Genital – Puberty Feels- Different development at different times Interaction - How do the various domains of development interact? The ultimate aim is to understand the child as a whole individual, not just someone who undergoes physical, perceptual, emotional, cognitive or social development No single component of development unfolds in isolation from the rest All themes of development and all parts of development contribute to the person Risk or Resilience Children are exposed to various benefits and risks during development- Disease exposure, abuse, divorce, war, etc. Resilient children seem to most effectively resist the negative consequences of risk- Have a constellation of individual qualities that include a relatively relaxed, self-confidentcharacter School Psychologists have to look at every part of a child’s life to solve a problem- Ex. 16 year old living in poverty, living in a hotel, with family health issues ends up with depression Risk factors outweighed resilience


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