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CSU BZ 300 - Learning Continued

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BZ 300 1st Edition Lecture 6 Outline of Last LectureChapter 4. HomeostasisCircadian Rhythms continued…ZeitgebernPacemakersSCN (Suprachiasmatic nuclei)Pineal gland Molecular basisSignificance of rhythmsPhysiological RegulationFeedingSatietyInsulin control systemFat storagePainTypes of painSharpInflammationCyclooxygenase enzymes (COX ensiymes)Opioid receptors Demonstration of pain sensation in animalsFear Time budgets Ethograms LearningIntergenerational predictability Learning curve MemoryShort-term memory Longer term memory Long-lasting memory Outline of Current LectureLearning Continued…ImprintingGeneral TraitsTypes of ImprintingFilial and SexualHabituationSensitizationClassical ConditioningOperant ConditioningDifferences between Operant and Classical ConditioningDefinitions to know:Intermittent ReinforcementExtinctionConstraints in Learning StudiesBiological ConstraintsMethodsReinforcement and PunishmentReinforcementPunishmentCurrent Lecture Learning continued…Imprinting General traits Rapidly occurring and quite stable. Occur when animals want to make a very specific response to one or more animal. Is a part of the animal’s development. No obvious reward, unusual to other types of learning. Possible long-term significance. The strength of imprinting is frequently related to the amount of effort the animal exhibits during the imprinting process. Some preferences are acquired more easily than others.Types of ImprintingFilial Imprinting: Process by which animals develop a social attachment to a particular object. Is long lasting but may not be permanent. Classic study Lorenz 1935, greylag goslings. If he allowed the goslings to follow after him after they hatched they would imprint on him, because goose imprint on the first thing they see oncethey hatch. They recognized them him as an individual and not just any other guy after they hatch, in nature that will be the mother goose.European Shrews imprint on the scent of the mother.Periods of time in Filial Imprinting:Sensitive period is when the imprinting occurs. It is the abbreviated, definite period of when imprinting can happen. Only goes to about thirty hours old. The critical period begins at about 13-16 hours after little ducks hatch. The critical period is where the attachment response is the greatest. Significance of filial imprinting and why it is favored by natural selection:Animals learn to follow mom, not some other random object and learn from what she does. A good example of learning in which animals are able to learn some things better than others.Sexual imprinting: Process where animals learn to direct their sexual behavior at stimulus objects but not others. Long-term developmental effects and involves longer periods of exposure than filial imprinting does. Ex. Zebra finch study. Switched the colors of the beaks, males had female color and females had males. When it came time to choose mates. Males chose the same color bill as their female, no matter the sex. However female always chose the male, no matter the color of the bill. This study showed that female and males imprint upon different things. Habituation Is the gradual fading of an unlearned response to a stimulus that proves to be safe/irrelevant. Oftentimes this is associated with danger. The habituation response wanes if these repeated patterns of stimulus are not reinforced. Reinforcement is anything that alters the probability of behavior, can be either positive or negative. Animals through habituation sift out irrelevant information in the environment. Habituation is widespread, stimulus specific, persistent. If stimulus comes back again and again, response will decline. In general, animals do not habituate to things that cause pain, physical harm. Things that cause pain is not irrelevant information.SensitizationIs where animals show increased response to repeated stimuli, involves highly relevant stimuli. The opposite of habituationEx. A bush has a particular smell and when walking by a wolf jumps out, if this is repeated a few times then the animal will have an increased response to the smell and will know how to react. Classical conditioning- the animal is not doing anything to cause anything to happen, but eventually associates two unrelated stimuli.Unconditioned response (UCR)- unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unlearned stimulus. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)- unconditionally, automatically and naturally triggers a responseConditioned response (CR)- learned response to the previous neutral stimuli.Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- originally is a neutral stimulus but once it has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus it triggers a conditioned response. Ex. Initially, when a dog receives food (unconditioned stimulus) the dog will salivate (unconditioned response). In an experience, when food appeared for the dogs, a bell would ring, know as the second neutral stimulus. The bell ring would occur at the same time as the unconditioned stimulus repeatedly. Once this is done a number of times the dog will associate the original neutral stimulus, the bellwith the unconditioned response (salivating) and the food no longer needs to be present. When this happens the neutral stimulus then becomes the conditioned stimulus. And the response to the bell that has been learned (salivating) is the conditioned response. The strength of the response depends on the consistency of the situation, the time between thestimulus and the response, and the relevance between the stimulus and response (the state of the animal currently is in).Operant Conditioning is also called instrumental learning. Animals begin to associate behavior due to the consequences of their own behavior. The sequence of events depends on what the animal is doing.Operant is behavior that produces the consequence. The reinforcing stimulus is the consequence.Examples include: maze learning, trial and error learning, and rewarding lever pressing.Differences between Classical and Operant Conditioning:Classical conditioning is where two stimuli are paired together. The animal does not control the sequence of events. Operant conditioning is the stimulus paired with the response of the animal. The responses of the test animal determine the sequence of events. Definitions to know: Intermittent reinforcement:Once an animal begans to follow a certain behavior, do not reinforce the animal with a reward every single time because the animal will begin to pay less


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