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UI EES 1030 - Process of Change

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EES 1030 1st Edition Lecture 5Intro to Earth ScienceEngines failing due to volcanic ash:- June 24th 1982 British airways flight 009. All 4 engines failed.- December 15th 1989 KLM flight 747-400. All 4 engines failed and plane descended to 13,300 ft before restarting.In 1991 the Establishment of Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers was found. This made sure airways were monitored and safe for planes to fly after volcanic eruptionsThe natural processes of ChangeStructures that show evident change:- The old man of the mountain – collapsed in 2003- Finger of God – collapsed in 1988- Arches are an example of sedimentary rock being weathered away The breakdown of rocks at Earth’s surfaceWeathering: the breaking down of rocks on earth’s surface. Erosion: physical removal of material by mobile agents (water, wind, air, ice, gravity)- Weathering and erosion leads to the formation of sedimentary rocks. It also releases nutrients into the surface waters. Physical Weathering:- Frost wedging- when cracks fill with water and the water freezes over expanding the rocks. (especially evident in the mountains where temperature changes are frequent)- Root wedging- where trees grow into cracks of rocks in the roots grow and push the cracks even further apart.These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Salt wedging- evaporation of water that’s rich with dissolved species. Leads to the growth of crystals.- Thermal expansion- large daily temperature changes - Unloading- uplift and erosion reduces pressure.Chemical Weathering: driven by water- Dissolution- promoted by acidic water. Rain water reacts with gases in the atmosphere - Hydrolysis- reaction of minerals with water. Hydrogen ions attack other ions and replace themHydrolysis can be compared to a coffee machine, water drains through coffee grounds and the liquid then contains substances that were in the grounds. The same thing happens with rainwater and the soil- Oxidation- minerals are exposed to atmospheric oxygen.Products from chemical weathering:Mineral Residual Products Material in SolutionQuarts Quarts grains noneFeldspars Clay minerals Silica k+, Na+, Ca2+Amphibole Clay minerals SilicaHornblende LimonitehematiteCa2+, Mg2+Olivine LimonitehematiteSilicaMg2+Calcite none Ca2+, CObase3^2+Placer Gold in Iowa:In 1904 gold could be panned out at $1-$1.50 a day in Otter Creek west union. Also can be found in Big Sioux River in 1900’sRates of Chemical Weathering- Surface area- rocks of the same volume but with different surface areas will weather at different rates. The more surface area the faster the weathering will occur - Different types of rocks will chemically weather at different rates. Grave stones are an example of this.- Climate can also affect the way rocks weatherPhysical effects of chemical weathering:- Spheroidal- when edges of angular minerals and corners are gradually rounded Composition of a “good” soil:- 45% mineral matter- 25% air- 25% water- 5% organic matterFactors controlling soil formation: temperate, precipitation, amount of time, microorganisms, worms, land condition-steep vs slopes, climate.Soil Profiles:Tropical Soil types:- Laterites: rich in iron and aluminum, typically rusty red in color.- Bauxite: aluminum oxide groupSoil Erosion:- Human activity is a large cause of soil erosion. By means of agriculture, deforestation, overgrazing


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