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PSYCH 240 1st Edition Lecture 7Outline of Last Lecture: AttentionI. Types of Attentiona. Focused Attentionb. Selective Attentionc. Divided Attentiond. Auditory Attentione. Attenuation Theoryf. Visual Attentiong. Feature Integration Theoryh. Visual Searchi. Visuo-Spatial Neglectj. Contralateral brain controlOutline of Current Lecture I. Perception and ImageryII. Propositional vs. Depictivea. Depictiveb. Propsitionalc. The Imagery Debate (Kosslyn)III. Theory of Mental Imagerya. Compromise theoryCurrent Lecture: Visual ImageryVisual Imagery – Lecture 7Exam 1: Feb 16th – poorest exam for most people- Go over lectures- Watch blue reviews- Held in this room during our regular lecture timeThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Multiple choice, 50 questions- Entire class on Wednesday is review- Read the book and published papers- All questions are covered on our exam review guideI. Perception and Imagerya. Depictive: picture or picture-like in quality1. All the information is present to you right away2. All the info that’s present is all the information that we needii. Depictive Codes1. They do not have truth values – neither true nor false, it just is2. All of the elements present are relevant3. Really good for concrete and spatial informationb. Propositional Codesi. They do have truth values1. The globe is on the desk.ii. Not all the elements are relevant1. On (globe, desk)iii. Powerful for abstract concepts1. JusticeII. Propositional vs. Depictivea. Depictive: the actual imagei. Ellen’s selfie (the actual picture)b. Propositional: the image described in wordsi. Bradley Cooper is to the right of Ellenii. Angelina Jolie is at the top right wavingiii. Meryl Streep is grabbing Ellen’s armc. The vast majority of us experience imagery. We are falling prey to the introspectionists issue where we only have access our experience of the image which is the product of some representation that we may not have access toi. Some people don’t like the depictive hypothesis b/c it required infinite regress1. Infinite regress: an image, w/in an image, w/in an image, etc. d. Kosslyn’s Findingsi. Interference Effects1. Perform 2 tasks simultaneously, if they interfere then they must require the same mental systemAuditory Detection Visual DetectionAuditory Imagery Interference (none)Visual Imagery (none) Interferenceii. Image Scanning1. Perhaps subjects think you want them to act like they’re scanning an image, so they act that waya. Subjects infer the experimenter’s implicit demandsb. Or perhaps experimenters expect a certain set of results and this biases resultsc. But get similar results when experimenters and subjects told that theory predicts scanning short distances takes longeriii. Zooming1. Imagine a bunny next to an elephant OR imagine a bunny next to a flya. If the code was depictive life, then participants were asked about the bunny next to the fly they would be answer quickly because they don’t have to zoom into the bunnyiv. Transformation1. Compare one geometric figure to anothera. First give them the same figure side by sideb. Second give them a rotated figure. The more rotated it was from theoriginal figure, the longer it took participants to identify that it was the same figure2. Intermediate rotationsa. Participants are going through all of the steps of rotating the images to get them to the comparison (original) figurev. Perception has metric qualities that images don’t1. Example: Without looking at it, does a hexagram (Star of David) have a parallelogram in it?a. The answer is yes but very rarely can we imagine it without looking at the actual imageIII. Theory of Mental Imagerya. Compromise theory (Kosslyn)i. The basic code is a propositional one (for long term storage)ii. then we use the propositional code to create this depictive imageiii. We act on depictive image that can be scanned, zoomed, etc.iv. Mental imagery and the brain1. Used PET scans to study brain – downside is they have to inject the subject w/ radioactive materiala. Perceptioni. Very fastb. Imageryi. Still quite fastc. Sensory-Motor Controli. Integration of the sensory system2. Results:a. Occipital lobe is more active when you’re imagining an F rather than when you’re perceiving the F3. Order Image Construction – how is the image being constructed?a. Image Complexityi. L (very simple)ii. C (medium difficulty)iii. S (most difficult)b. The number of segments (complexity) was related to how long it would take to respond in the imagery evaluation but not in perceptioni. b/c we write our F down, top line, middle lineii. Perception1. Doesn’t matter how complex the letter is. If we see an x and the letter is there then we can respond right awayiii. Imagine1. The more complex the letter the more time it took for the subject to identify the image2. Two independent variables: a. the letter complexity (number of segments) b. the relationship between image evaluation v. perceptionc. Interaction was seen between number of segments on the image condition that interacts w/ the response time4. People are impaired when creating mental imagery if their motor cortex is damageda. This suggests it is a reconstructive


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