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UNCW PSY 223 - Object Permanence

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PSY 223 1st Edition Lecture 8Object Permanence- What is it? Being able to recognize that something is still existing even when you're not seeing itObject Permanence - The A not B error- What is the A not B error?o (also known as "stage 4 error" or "perseverative error") is a particular error made by infants during substage 4 of their sensorimotor stage.Stage Five- Active experimentation- Months 12-18- Exploration through trial and errorStage Six- Mental combinations- Months 18-24- Intellectual experimentation - Pretend play- Deferred imitation Caveats to Piaget’s stages - Generalization of sample- Understanding of ability- Lack of technologyThe first two years—Perception: Visual Cliff- Initially a test of depth perception- What does it actually show? Shows what they know about crawling, their interpretation of the body language of their loved ones These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.The first two years: memory- Memory improves in the first 2 years of life- Difficult to study memory in infants- Different types of memory - some more developed than othersThe first 2 years: Language developmentThe Hierarchal Structure of Language- Phonemes - the smallest unit of speech or the basic sounds of a language- Morphemes - the smallest unit of meaning ex) prefixes, suffixes, plural- Semantics - the meaning of a word or phrase- Syntax - the rules for structuring languageLanguage Development: Milestones- Initial vocalizations similar across languageso Crying, cooing, babbling- 6 months o Babbling sounds begin to resemble surrounding language - 1 year o first wordDunstan Baby talk- Sleepy - Owh- Hungry - Neh- Burp me - Eh- Change me -Heh- A uncomfortable - EairhLanguage Development: Milestones Continued- 18-24 months- Vocabulary spurt- over and under extension End of second year - Combining words - telegraphic speech Monolingual v. Bilingual Children- Similar course and rate of development- Some differences - but additional research needed to fully understandTheories of Language Development 1. Behaviorism 2. Epigenetic3. InteractionistBehaviorism - BF skinner- Language acquired by - Association- ReinforcementEpigenetic- Noam Chomsky- Universal Grammar- language acquisition device (LAD)Language and ThoughtLinguistic relativity - Benjamin Lee


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