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BU PSYC 111 - Psych in class notes

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Psych in class notes:10/28/14 Learning theorySchedule of reinforcement - Ratio schedules o Variable ratio-it’s based on an average. It’s much less predictable Ex: 4 times reinforce, 6 times reinforce, 8 times reinforce, 2 times reinforce—and all those would average out to be four or whatever your determined average is. o Fixed ratio- - Important concepts for instrumental conditioning o Generalization- o Token economy- works off the idea of primary and secondary reinforces. Primary reinforces have intrinsic value—water, food, pain. Secondary reinforces have no intrinsic value but have been associated with intrinsic values. Ex: stickers. They have no intrinsic value but once you get enough stickers you can get something that have intrinsic value to you like prize, money… also a chore chart. They have used this in prisons,  Chuckie cheese is an example of token economy (because you get tickets for doing well on games and then with those tickets you get a prize)  Meriwether doesn’t agree with this because there are two types of motivation. Intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic is when it comes within and is proven to be better. So when you use token economy to enforce good grades it sends the message that ….o chimpanzees o Discrimination o Shaping  Class exercise in shaping  When they (class volunteers) get close to target behavior the class should clap and cheer. When she isn’t close to target behavior boo her  Target behavior- Sit on floor - Take your shoe off  Both of them succeeded o Slot machine is an example of variable ratio reinforcement (based on the number of times slots are played)  Gambling is potentially addictive - Observational learning and social learning theoryo We can also learn by watching others. o Albert Bandura’s infamous bobo doll experiment Discovered that children will imitate an adult model. Implications: - Antisocial behaviors may be perpetuated - Prosocial behavior may also be perpetuated - What about TV?o Symbolic modeling – when you don’t imitate a live person but rather a two dimensional representation of a person ex:youtubevideo—and there is a big difference between the twoo They found a correlation between watching violent TV and acting violently in kids (not every kids but most) - What about spanking? (or physical punishment)o In the U.S it used to be that 93% had been spanked by their parents as a punishment even once. It has now lowered to 83%. o If kids are spanked or physically punished would it increase the likely hood that they will act aggressiveo Story of why Meriwether gave up TV in her house: only allowed her kids to watch PBS. Moved to Michigan when children were 5and 8. 8 is when TV gets dicey BC most kid shows are designed for 8 yr. olds but they want to watch older shows for teenagers. Her kids wanted to watch that’s so raven (at least African girl with curves and not skinny white people) she thought it was promising but really raven just chased boyso Look at video in slide and look about what the experiment is exactly10/30/14Memory - Video on purse snatcher in class. The people in the class were so certain they were knew who the person is but they were wrong - Memory for a penny - Expose isn’t enough for memory. - Simple rehearsal= repeating things over and over again to remember things o The most common form of studying for college students - Memory-the way in which we record past events and knowledge - Ways to be successful in memory o Acquisition- learning something the first time o Storage- you have to keep the information!! You can learn something and fail to keep it, it could have leaked awayo Look at section in textbook on displacement and interference o Retrieval- you learned it and stored it but can’t retrieve it. This is more of an issue of fill in the blank and essay test.  You can feel the answer but can’t get it out. Called tip of the tongue phenomenon Information processing approach to memory - Sensory Register- you have one for vision and sound o Iconic registry sensor  For vision Last about a second. If you look around the room. You have the image of the room but then it goes away Sparlings partial report procedure- he would give his participants a matrix but only for a second. He couldn’t tell if they had it but lost it or if they never had it. So instead he had them report on a row depending On a sound. Once he did this they reported 100% accuracy o Echoic registry sensor—for sound  When someone says something to you. And you hear it but don’t remember it o Short term memory-if left unattended can hold stuff for a few seconds but you wouldn’t remember it. Its deration last longer than sensory register  Research has shown that you can store about 7 things in your short term memory. Big or small. It could be a phone number or 7 lines of poetry  Chunking- strategy for storing things in short term memory. Group a few things together to make it one - Ex: last digits of phone number are 1492 so instead of learning 1,4,9,2 you chunk it but saying Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492—by doing that you are making it one thing - Very few people who have extreamlyyyy good short term memory o Long term memory- capacity and duration are large!! Doesn’t mean things have to stay but they could o Control Processes- strategies to remember things (?) Kinds of long term memory - Procedural o How to remember to do things, memory for skills  Ex: knitting, bowling - Declarative o Sematic – memory for concepts and words o Episodic – memory for events  What did you eat for dinner? Who did you eat it with? What did you wear to prom? - Video: youtube-stephen Wiltshire draws NYC for UBS o His amazing memory seems to be contributed to sevonce. He is autistic so what others use memory for social skills he doesn’t as much (?)- Explicit- facts and general knowledge - Implicit- without conscious recall, motor skills and cognitive. Has to do with classical and operantconditioning - On quiz or test she would expect us to know the diff between explicit and implicit!! And Procedural and Declarative, plus within declarative. - Use book to enhance some definitions Recognition and Free Recall - Recognition- o Ex: someone stops you on the street and says we went to high school together! First you have to recognize them o Multiple choice test - Recall-o Once you recognize the person. Understanding how/ what their name is—who they actually


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