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UM BIOH 370 - Endocrine System Continued

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BIOH 370 1st EdtionLecture 4Outline of Last Lecture I. Pituitary Gland Disorders II. Case Studies 1: Case study with too little hGH:a. Symptoms/signs:a. Treatment:c. Follow-up at 19 years old: 2. Case Study with too much hGH (during childhood): Gigantism a. Signs/symptoms (if untreated):b. Treatments III. Thyroid Glanda. Thyroid Hormonesb. Thyroid Hormone Factsc. Thyroid Hormone Chart-Study!d. Goiter e. Grave’s DiseaseIV. Parathyroid Glands:a. 2 Types of Cellsb. Parathyroid Hormone Chart:c. Parathyroid Feedback Loop:V. Adrenal Glands (suprarenal glands) These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.a. Divided into two regions:1. Cortex – outer regionContains three regions:1. Zona Glomerulosa- mineralocorticoids (i.e. aldosterone)2. Zona Fasciculata- Glucocorticoids 3. Zona Reticularis2. Medulla-middle regionb. Adrenal Glands Chart-STUDY!c. RAA Pathway-STUDY!Outline of Current Lecture Endocrine System Cont…I. Adrenal Glands ContinuedII. Adrenal Gland Disordersa. Tumor in Zona Glomerulosa of Adrenal CortexAddison’s Disease b. Hypersecretion of Cortisol in Adrenal Glands (can occur in Pituitary Gland as well) Cushing’s Disease III. Pancreasa) Pancreatic Isletsb) Pancreatic Islets Hormonesa. Pancreatic Islets Insulin/Glucagon Feedback Systemb. Diabetes Mellitusc. Type I Diabetes:d. Type II DiabetesII. Gonads: Ovaries/TestesCurrent LectureEndocrine System Cont…III. Adrenal Glands Continued:a. Secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol[hydrocortisone]-the most produced,cortisone and corticosterone) is regulated by negative feedback.- They help control:1. Protein breakdown2. Glucose formation3. Lipolysis4. Resistance to stress5. Inflammation 6. Immune responses- Cortisol levels drop at night=increase in inflammation when have some sort of throat/cough sickness-why cough more at night.IV. Adrenal Gland Disorders:a. Tumor in Zona Glomerulosa of Adrenal Cortex- Can’t regulate flood volume and salt concentrations in blood- Addison’s Disease: Addison’s Disease is an autoimmune disorder resulting in destruction of adrenal cortex cells - Glucocorticoid Hyposecretion- Also involves deficits in mineralocorticoids-Decrease in glucose and Na+ levels-Weight loss, severe dehydration, and hypotension-Sometimes darkening of skin occurs due to sever dehydration –Na/K pump not regulated=issues with elements going in and out of cell b. Hypersecretion of Cortisol in Adrenal Glands (can occur in Pituitary Gland as well)- Cushing’s Disease (hypersortisolism)o Hypertensiono Oligomenorrhea-change in menstruation cycleo Sleep disturbanceo Mood disordero Fatigueo Weight gaino Cervical fat pad (hunch back)o ‘moon’ faceo 39 cases/milliono Body constantly thinks there is a stressor so holds onto all nutrition=weight gaino To determine if pituitary gland or adrenal gland issues: first do a blood test to look at ACTH levels (much cheaper!)–if those are abnormal then might have pituitary problem. If ACTH levels normal then can move onto next test= look at images of adrenal glandV. Pancreas- Both endocrine and exocrine gland- located at the curve of the duodenuma. Pancreatic Islets- Almost all of the exocrine cells of the pancreas are arranged in clusters called acini. These produce digestive enzymes that are delivered to the gastrointestinal tract through ducts.- Scattered among the acini are clusters of endocrine tissue called pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans). b. Pancreatic Islets Hormonesc. Pancreatic Islets Insulin/Glucagon Feedback System-Negative Feedbackd. Diabetes Mellitus- Cormorbid with acromegaly- insulin resistance because had uncontrolled hyperglycemia because hGH is constantly turned one. Type I Diabetes:- Autoimmune disease=symptom starts usually during childhood- Beta cells affected- can’t regulate insulin levels so need exogenous insulinf. Type II Diabetes:- Insulin resistance built up- “life style disease”- body constantly had too much glucose that so stops being able to control insulin *Uncontrolled Diabetes= vision loss/other tissue loss because insulin is important for bringing glucose into cells- when insulin is unregulated, cells don’t get this glucose so the cells/tissues can’t make APT so they will dieVI. Gonads: Ovaries/Testesa. Hormones: Men and women have testosterone, estrogen and


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