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NAU ANT 103 - Five Subsystems of Language

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ANT 103 1st Ediiton Lecture 6Outline of Last Lecture I. Reciprocal altruismII. What is communicationIII. What is a signIV. 3 ways signs may “stand for something”V. Types of communicationOutline of Current Lecture VI. 5 subsystems of languageA. PhonologyB. MorphologyC. SyntaxD. SemanticsE. Pragmatics Current LecturePhonology is the study of sounds. Phonological contours are specific to each language. EXAMPLE: “bird” in English vs. “bird” in Russian. Some languages have more consonant on consonant words (less vowels used). How the stress is established in a word can change the meaning. How is the height of the voice? For example, Chinese is a tonal language which means syllables alternate in being raised or lowered. If the order of intonation is flipped the meaning is changed. However, English has intonations as well. For example, we can tell the difference between “make-up” and “make up” just by the way they are said. An example of intonation in phrases is “Do you want to go to the movies tonight?” The end syllable is raised because it is a question and that’s how we distinguish questions from statements. Another example of how intonation makes a difference is in Mandarin and Cantonese. These are both Chinese languages that are written the same, but sound different because of how they raise/lower their voice for different words. Morphology is the study of word structure. This also varies between languages. EXAMPLE: subject verb order in English is important for meaning (dog bit man vs man bit dog). However, subject verb order is not important in other languages like Latin or Spanish. Word order can change the emphasis or meaning to fit the speaker’s intentions. These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Syntax is the study of sentence structure. This is how we analyze whole phrases as opposed to just words.Semantics is the study of meaning. Sometimes what we say has a not so hidden meaning behindthe actual words. Pragmatics is the study of language use. EXAMPLE: “don’t call us, we will call you” after an interview means you probably did not get the job. How do we know this? It is something that has been learned in our individual society. Foreigners might not understand until a native tells


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