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UofL PSYC 322 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYCH 322 – 1st Edition Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 9Lecture 1 (Jan 9)II. Cognitive Psychology is the study of mental processes.a. It is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind.III. Cognition : mental activity/processes a. Cognition Involves : Perception, Attention, Memory, Representation of Knowledge, Language, Problem-Solving, Reasoning & decision makingb. Think about all the things you have done since you woke up this morning. c. Meta-cognition: personal awarenessIV. 3 things we have to use every day:i. Attention, Learning, and MemoryV. Maintenance rehearsal : repeating a phone number in your head until you are able to type it into the phoneLecture 2 (Jan 12) I. Donders simple reaction time vs choice reaction time was the first cognitive psychology experiment. II. Wundt’s analytic introspection. He established the first laboratory of scientific psychologyIII. Ebbinghaus’s savings method to measure forgetting was quantitative measurement of mental processesIV. James reported observations of his own experience and worte the first psycholofy textbookLecture 3 (Jan 21)I. THE MINDa. The mind creates and controls mental functions. Its central role in determining out various mental abilities. The mind is a system that creates representations of the world so that we can act within it to achieve our goals. This reflects the minds importance for functioning and survivalII. The 1st Cognitive Psychologistsa. Donders (1868) pioneering experiment: how long does it take to make a decision?i. Mental chronometry – measuring how long a cognitive process takesii. Reaction-time (RT) experiment – measures interval between stimulus presentation and person’s response to stimulus.1. Simple RT task: participant pushes a button quickly as possible after light appears2. Choice RT task: participant pushes one button if light is on right side, another if light is on left sideiii. Choice RT – Simple RT = Time to make a decisioniv. Mental responses cannot be measured directly but can be inferred from the participant’s behaviorv. Presenting the stimulus causes a mental response, which leads to a behavioral response. The reaction time is the time between the presentation of the stimulus and the behavioral responseb. Helmholtz (~1860s)i. Helmholtz studied Unconscious inference. He believed that some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions we make about the environment, we infer much of what we know about the worldc. Ebbinghaus (1885) memory experiment: what is the time course of forgetting?i. Read list on nonsense syllables aloud many times to determine number ofrepetitions necessary to repeat list without errorsii. After some time, he relearned the list1. Short intervals = fewer repetitions to relearniii. Learned many different lists at many different retention intervalsiv. Savings= [(initial repetitions)-(relearning repetitions)]/(initial repetitions)v.Forgetting curve shows savings as a function of retention intervald.Wundt (1897)i.First psychological laboratory- University of Leipzig, Germanyii.RT experimentsiii.Wundt’s approach was structuralism: experience is determined by combining elements of experience called sensationsiv.His method was Analytic introspection: participants trained to describe experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli1.John Watson noted two problems with this. He believed that the results varied extremely from person to person and that theresults difficult to verify because of the invisible inner mental processes that we cannot see.2.John Watson proposed a new approach called Behaviorism. Behaviorism eliminated the mind as a topic of study and instead, they directly studied observable behavior.e.James (1890) principles of psychologyi.Paying attention to one thing involves withdrawing from other things.III.The Rise Of Behaviorisma.Watson (1920) conducted an experiment called “Little Albert.” Watson was interested in the classical conditioning of fear. He paired the 9 month old babywith a white rat. When the Little Albert’s attention was focused on the rat, Watson would make a loud bang/crash noise and startle the baby. He continued to do this several times until the baby became fearful of the rat.1.Classical Conditioning: Pair a neutral event with an event that naturally produces some outcome. After many pairings, the “neutral” event now also produces the outcome.ii.Watson concluded that behavior can be analyzed without any reference to the mind. He examined this by pairing one stimulus with another and how it affected behavior1.The principles of learning by pairing came to be called Classical Conditioning the discovered by Pavlov when he paired ringing bell with the presentation of food. Initially, only presentation of the food caused the dog to salivate, but after a number of pairings of the bell and food, the bell alone caused salivation. b.Skinner (1950s) was interested in determining the relationship between stimuli and response. Skinner found Operant Conditioning. He learned to shape behavior by rewards or punishments. Behavior that is rewarded is morelikely to be repeated, as behavior that is punished is less likely to be repeated.IV.The Decline of Behaviorisma.Skinner in 1957 argued that children learn language through operant conditioning. He believed that children imitate speech they hear and when correct speech is heard they are rewarded.b.Chomsky (1959) argued that children do not only learn language through imitation and reinforcement. He believed that children sat things they have never heard and cam not me imitating and that children sat things that are incorrect and have not been rewarded for. He argued that language must be determined by an inborn biological program.c.The Misbehavior of Organisms (1961) attempted to condition animal behavior,and it did not work. Animals’ built-in instinct prevailedd.Tolman (1938) trained rats to find food in a four-armed maze. There are two competing interpretations of this:i.Behaviorism predicts that the rats learned to “turn right to find food”ii.Tolman believed that the rats has created a cognitive map of the maze and were navigating to a specific armV.Studying the mind to understand complex cognitive behaviors. We want to measure observable behavior, make inferences about underlying cognitive activity, and consider what this behavior days about how the mind worksVI.The Cognitive Revolution was a period of time where there


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