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SIU PLB 115 - Nucleic Acids & Nutrition II

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PLB 115 1st Edition Lecture 5 Nucleic Acids & Nutrition II Previous Notes’ OutlineI. CarbsII. LipidsIII. ProteinsCurrent Notes’ OutlineI. Nucleic Acids (RNA, DNA)II. NutritionIII. VitaminsIV. MineralsV. WaterVI. Dietary Reference IntakesVII. GrainsVIII. Fruits IX. VegetablesX. DairyXI. ProteinsXII. OilXIII. ExerciseNucleic AcidsLargest biological molecules (DNA, RNA)o Store & transfer information within cello Made of nucleotides: 5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base (A,C,T (RNA=U ≠ T), G)- RNA Single-strand**Uracil (A-U) instead of Thymine (A-T ~ in DNA)3 different forms:These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.o mRNA: Messengero rRNA: Ribosomalo tRNA: Transfer- DNAo 2 strands (twisted together in “double helix”) held together by hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases (A-T, C-G: Adenine & Thymine, Cytosine & Guanine)o Each strand ÷ into segments or genes (segment=gene) & Genes = ”recipe” for proteinso Each strand= chromosome ~ Humans= 46 chromosomeso Sequence of nucleotides in gene dictate order of amino acids in polypeptideFunctions- Replicate itself- Store info & transmit to offspring- Direct protein synthesis- Mutate (chemically change)Diet & Nutrition- Diet: All food & drink consumed by organism- Nutrition: Branch of science that studies, food, its nutrients & how they’re used in body (also process by which we ingest food & use it)Process of Nutrition- Ingestion: Taking in food to eat- Digestion: Breakdown of complex (to smaller) molecules - Absorption: Movement of small molecules from digestive system to circulatory (blood stream) system- Assimilation: Modification & incorporation of absorbed molecules into organism structureVitamins- Organic molecules that help enzymes work properly: participate in metabolic reactions as coenzymes- Need to be ingested in small amounts- cannot be made in body (Vitamin D made in bodywhen UV light combines with cholesterol)- Antioxidants that “destroy free radicals”- Water soluble vitamins: A, C, (some) Bo Not stored so must be ingested daily- Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K Can be stored in liver- Vitamin Supplements: not necessary if balanced diet. - Excess vitamins (some) toxic in high dosesMinerals- Inorganic elements that cannot be made in body- Found in food & drinking water & not altered by cookingFunctions- Enzyme regulator/cofactors (Magnesium)- Neurotransmission (Sodium, potassium)- Oxygen transport (Iron ~ deficiency= anemia)- Bone structure (Calcium ~ deficiency= osteoporosis)Water- Body= 65% water. Constantly lost (sweat, urine, etc.) so must be continuously ingestedo Water= primary content of blood, lymph, tissue fluid- Dissolves Inorganic ions (Na+,K+,Cl−). Called electrolyte b/c conduct electricity when dissolved o Wastes often water-solubleDietary Reference Intakes- Published by USDA: Guidelines for maintaining good health- recommended maximum amounts of nutrients- Food labels: List ingredients from greatest to least in quantityGrains Ex: Bread, bagels, cereal, crackers, pasta- Whole grains best b/c fiber content- Contains: vitamins & minerals- Should provide most calories in diet- Recommended amounts: Men: 8 oz., Women: 6 oz. (1 slice= 1 oz.)Fruits- Botanical term: enlarged/modified ovary of plant- Nutritional term: any sweet plant product not usually eaten during main course Ex: Melons, berries, apples, oranges, bananas- Recommended: 1-2 cups/day- Contains: Fiber, water, carbs, vitamins, mineralsVegetables- Non-sweet plants normally eaten during main course Ex: broccoli, cabbage, lettuce, corn, tomatoes, potatoes, green beans- Recommended: 4.5 cups a day - Contain: Vitamins, minerals, fiber, carbs *** Cancer protectionDairy Ex: Milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream- ** High in fat & cholesterol often- Recommended: 2-3 cups a day- Contain: Protein, carbs, fat, calcium, potassium, vitamins (D, B & sometimes A in milk-added)Proteins Ex: Meat (chicken, beef, pork, fish), beans, nuts, peas, tofu, eggs- Recommended: 5.5- 6.5 oz. a day- Nutrient info: Prepare meats to eliminate fats, mix sources to get complete nutrition, some sources have vitamins & minerals, fish & plants = essential fatty acids)Oil- HIGH caloric content so must be eaten in moderation (small amounts) & only be 20-35% of total calories of day- Recommended: 6-7 tsp. a day- Contain: Vitamin E- Unsaturated (fish, nuts, veggie oils) > Saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterolExercise- Recommended: 30 mins. moderate exercise to elevate heart rate significantly & ↑ calories that can be consumed w/o gaining weight- 2/3 Americans= overweight, 1/3 Americans=


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