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UofL PSYC 322 - Memory

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PSYCH 322 1st Edition Lecture 9Attention & MemoryOutline of Last Lecture I.Questions to considerII.Selective attentionIII.Attention models & methodsIV.Divided AttentionV.Overt vs. Covert attentionVI.Visual attentionVII.Feature Integration Theory (FIT)VIII.How do we use memory in our everyday life?Outline of Current LectureIX.Modal model of memoryX.Model of working memoryCurrent LectureInput Rehearsal Encoding Retrieval OutputI. Professor Haynes talks about the different types of memories and their storage as warehouses. How much capacity of information can each warehouse hold and for how long will it store that information?a. Your sensory register is a momentary/temporary place to store information. Your attention must be functioning in some way to keep information in that memory warehouse, and it can only handle so much at one time. An example of this is thinking about the feeling of your butt sitting in a chair: you are always These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. Sensory Memory /sensory registerHolds informationfor 1-7 secondsShort-Term / WorkingMemoryMemory lasts 15-20secondsLong-Term Memory (LTM)No limitPermanentprocessing it but you don’t think about it until it becomes relevant and you think about it to pay attention to it. b. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) used a computer as a model for human cognition. They say that memory is an integrated system that processes information like acquiring, storing and retrieving information. They stated that memory has a limited capacity for space, resources and time.i. Memory control processes are active ways that can be controlled by the person. It shows how practice and performance are related. With practiceyou can become better at dividing your memory. There are 3 different processes:1. Rehearsal2. Different strategies used to make a stimulus more memorable3. Different strategies of attentionc. Sensory memory holds large amounts of information for a short period of time. It collects information, holds that information for initial processing, and fills in the blank.i. Short-lived sensory memory registers most, it not all, information that hits out visual receptors. This information decays very quickly.ii. To measure the capacity and duration of sensory memory, participants were read an array of letters that were flashed quickly up on a computer screen and asked to them report as many letters as possible that they remembered. The average was 4.5 correct out of 12 letters. d. Short-Term/Working memory stores small amounts of information for a brief duration of time. This includes both new information received from the sensory store and recalled information from long-term memory. i. Proactive interference (PI) occurs when information learned previously interferes with learning new information.ii. Retroactive interference (RI) occurs when new learning interferes with remembering old learning. iii. Chunking is when you take small units, like a list of random letters read to you, and you combine these small units into larger meaningful units.1. Chunk is a collection of elements strongly associated with one another but weakly associated with elements of other chunks.iv. Coding information in STM:1. Coding: the way information is representeda. Auditory, visual, or semantic coding2. Physiological: how a stimulus is represented by the firing of neurons3. Mental: how stimulus or experience is represented in the mindv. Working memory is set up to process different types of information simultaneously and has trouble when similar types of information are presented at the same time.II.Baddeley and Hitch made a model of working memory that consists of 3 parts:a.Phonological loop is a part of working memory that holds and processes verbal and auditory informationb. Visuospatial Sketchpad holds visual and spatial information. You use this when you form a picture in your mind.c. Central executive is where the major work of working memory occurs. The central executive pulls information from long-term memory and coordinates the activity of the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad by focusing on the specific parks of a task and deciding how to divide attention between different


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