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Purdue PSY 12000 - PSY 120 exam 1 study guide

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PSY 120 exam 1 study guideChapter 1What are the 3 goals of psychological science?-to describe, explain, and predict behaviorWhat are the 4 attitudes that encompass the core of the scientific approach?- Critical thinking- the process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence.- Curiosity-- Skepticism- Objectivity Structuralism- Wilhelm Wundt’s approach to discovering the basic elements or structures of mental processes. Method used in the study of mental structures was ‘introspection’ (looking inside)Functionalism- Investigated the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual’s adaptation to the environment. William James.7 contemporary approaches to psychologyBiological- focuses on the body, especially the brain and nervous system. Neuroscience- structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of nervous system. Brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior thought, and emotion.Behavioral- emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses andtheir environmental determinants. Behaviors—not thoughts or feelings. Behaviorists- Watson and Skinner.Psychodynamic- emphasizes unconscious thought, the conflict between biological drives and society’s demands, and early childhood experiences. Sigmund Freud= founding father.Humanistic- emphasizes a person’s positive qualities, the capacity for growth, and the freedom to choose one’s destiny. Humanists= Carl Rogers & Abraham MaslowCognitive- emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing: how we direct outattention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems. Evolutionary- centered on evolutionary ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, andnatural selection as the basis for explaining specific human behavior.Sociocultural- Examination of ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior. Focuses on comparisons of behavior across countries and ethnicand cultural groups within countries.Five steps of the scientific method- 1. Observing some phenomena 2. Formulating hypotheses and predictions3. Testing through empirical research4. Drawing conclusions5. Evaluating conclusions Operational definition- a definition that provides an objective description of how avariable is going to be measured and observed in a particular study.Correlational research- discovering relationships between variables. Examining whether and how variables are related and change together.Strength: numberDirection: signIndependent- manipulatedDependent- measuredExperimenter bias- the influence of the experimenter’s expectations on the outcome of research.Random assignment- researchers assign participants to groups by chance. Helps establish causation. Random selection-Internal validity- are changes in dependents variables due to independent variables?External validity- do experimental results apply, or generalize, to real world?Reliability- Chapter 2What are the unique factors of each characteristics of the nervous system?- Complexity- Integration- brain pulls information together - Adaptability- ‘plasticity’ = the brain’s special capacity for change- Electrochemical transmissionDivisions of the nervous systemCentral Nervous System- Brain and spinal cordPeripheral Nervous System- Network of nerves connecting CNS to the body. Function= to bring information to and from the CNS and carry out commands of the CNS to execute various muscular and glandular activities.-Somatic Nervous System: sensory information from skin and muscles to CNS.-Autonomic nervous system: messages to and from internal organs- sympathetic nervous system- arousing. “Fight or flight” reaction. Corticosteroids (stress hormones)- parasympathetic nervous system- Calming. Cell body- contains nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance.Dendrites- Fibers protecting from neuron. Receive information and orient it towardthe neuron’s cell body.Nucleus- Axon- carries information from cell body toward other cells.Myelin Sheath- layer of fat cells, encasing and insulating most axonsWhat is the process of the neural impulse? How is this process related to electricity?To transmit information to other neurons, a neuron sends brief electrical impulses through its axon to the next neuron.Abides by all-or-nothing principle: once the electrical impulse reaches its threshold, it fires and moves down the axon without losing any of its intensity.What are the different neurochemical messengers responsible for?Acetylcholine- stimulates firing of neurons. Involved in the action of muscles, learning, and memory. GABA- keeps many neurons from firing. Low levels= anxietyNorepinephrine- prevents firing of neurons in CNS. Excites heart muscles, intestines, and urogenital tract. Depression= too little. Agitated, manic state= too much.Dopamine- helps control voluntary movement. Affects sleep, mood, attention, learning, and rewards. Serotonin- involved in regulation of sleep, mood, attention, learning. Depression= low levels.Endorphins- Natural opiates that mainly stimulate firing of neurons. Shiled body from pain and elevate feelings of pleasure.Oxytocin- hormone and neurotransmitter. Important role in experience of love and social bonding.Hindbrain- adjacent to top part of spinal cord-medulla- controls breathing and heart rate, regulates reflexes-cerebellum- motor coordination- pons- sleep and arousal -brain stem- determines alertness. Regulates basic survival functionsMidbrain- rises above hindbrain- reticular formation- involved in stereotyped patterns of behavior, such as walking and sleepingForebrain- upper most region of brain-Limbic system- important in memory and emotion- amygdala- discrimination of objects necessary for survival- hippocampus- storage of memories-thalamus- relay station for information- basal ganglia- works w/ cerebellum and cerebral cortex-hypothalamus- monitors eating, drinking, sex, emotion, stress, and reward. Helps direct endocrine system. Regulator of body’s internal state. Involved in pleasurable feelings.- Cerebral Cortex- occipital lobes- responding to visual stimuli-temporal lobes- hearing, language processing, memory-frontal lobes- personality, intelligence, control of voluntary muscles->pre-frontal cortex- higher cognitive functions- planning, reasoning, and self- control-parietal lobes- registering spatial location, attention and motor controlCorpus callosum-


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