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Clemson HIST 1730 - Lecture 8 History After 1730

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Lecture 8 History After 1730Neolithic Era8,000 BC was the first farming communitiesPeople who lived before the Industrial Revolution lived in ways very similar to ancient times.The Industrial RevolutionWas very quick and dramaticWe are currently in the Digital Phase of the revolutionApartments and Factories were growing because of the demand. With the population boom, there had to be more areas for job opportunities and sleep.There was also better communication and transportation available with the industries for better food (and more regular food) supplies. Basically this was an era of flowing and growing commodities.Employment in the new factories were available because of mass production. More people = more needs = more growth = more supplies and demands.New ideologies came to fruition because of the revolutions (Industrial, French, American, etc.)In 1850, a new term was coined, “Capitalism.”This new era was called the era of “Dark, Satanic Mills” by William Blake.But, the factories were made up of around ten people on average.A lot of traditional industries stayed in the countryside instead of coming to the city.There were horrible places to work during this time period.A lot of the mills were filled with women and children- because they were easier to control, and they wanted money to buy stuff as well.This era was fraught with factories, machines, and mechanical lubricants- he loved this part.The factories created opportunities for entrepreneurs like glasscutters and engine fixers.What was the Industrial Revolution? A time of mass production that relies heavily on machinery.*Schumyeter- The Theory of Creative Destruction- he thought the old way would always be destroyed by innovation and that traditionalists would always be atrisk. If production isn’t as expensive then other people can have it that couldn’t afford it before. Emphasizes consumer and consumer goods.The Strongest Economies- survived very serious wars.Why Was England The First?Small farmers were doing very well at this time and by mid 18th century they had almost doubled the size of their farms from the previous century. They were increasing in size and doing better on the market do to scientific advancements. Theaverage person had better incomes and the declining costs of staples allowed them to buy more food without breaking the bank.From the 17th to 18th Century:Increase in demand for consumer goods, especially clothing. The average person had three full outfits bought every year (change of wardrobe).The Free Business Press was also another crowning reason why England was the first to industrialize. It had little to no censorship and the ideas flowed very quickly out and around England.China- no newspapers. England produced 300xs the amount of books produced annually. Capital market investors don’t exist in China also.India- no newspapers either, they also didn’t have investors.France couldn’t industrialize until after 1850 (Revolution, Wars, etc) Napoleonic Wars delayed the process of industrialization, because it ended the massproduction of commodities in France.Holland could have but they instead focused on specialized agriculture (Craft Farming).Spain had too much local power going on. They couldn’t create a national highway system due to the strength of the local governments.EnglandEngland’s 18th century turnpike was the best in the world because the government utilized imminent domain.Socialism was brought on by the bad working conditions.Textiles- most of our clothing is made abroad today. Globalized labor market.This was the number 1 industry at the time (still is). They used cotton from the US- Slave labor was free so the cotton was cheaper- then the British used machinery to produce the cotton into clothing.Before Factories- cottage industries- but those owners faced losses of material and time.The point of factories- make the process as efficient as possible. Hydro Power, steam power, and electrical power came forth in that order to make it more efficient.Price of goods go down with mass production.EX: Cotton ginning used to be done by slave hands, could do maybe a pound a day.Eli Whitney created the cotton gin, which could do 50 pounds a day.Coal Mining IndustrySteam Engine was created because the iron was too far down in the earth, allowing for water to fill in the holes, and hindering the process of mining. Coal did create horrible pollution in Great Britain though.George StephensonInventor of the railroad. Got rid of the horse. In 1820 he realized he could transport people this way as well. The first train, the rocket, went 15 mph. Allowed the prices to come down, the beginning of big business. This is essential for mass production. It is the first company to sell stock.The USEnded up surpassing Europe as they were trying to rebuild their kingdoms after WWI and WWII in industry.20th CenturySanitation and medical needs are better met. People living longer, more food and jobs


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