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KU PSYC 350 - Exam 1 Study Guide

Course: Psyc 350-
Type: Study Guide
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PSYC 350 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 6Lecture 1 (January 20)-Mental illness will touch everyone in one way or another-Abnormal behaviors include distress, disability, and deviance-People who are different from the norm are considered "abnormal," like me-Deviance is culturally specific-Thomas Szasz said these behaviors are different, not abnormal (i.e. cross dressing)-Weird behaviors are not necessarily wrong, and being wrong is not necessarily abnormal-i.e. some cultures are accepting of gender confusion and others see it as a disorder-Abnormal behaviors are the result of a problem with society, not the individual-People are labeled abnormal not because they are disturbed, but because they disturb othersLecture 2 (January 22)-Early history says abnormal behaviors are caused by evil spirits that can be cured by drilling a hole in the skull and driving the spirits out through it, trephination-Disturbed people were "witches"-Hippocrates said that an imbalance fluids called humors cause abnormal behavior. Yellow is anxiety, black is depression.-"Lunatics" were made abnormal by the moon-They tested for witches by holding her underwater, if she survived then she was a witch.-Asylums were places of refuge for abnormals, St. Mary of Bethlehem was the most famous one.-Patients at St. Mary's would interact with one another in a common area and people could buy tickets to watch them on Sundays-Scientists thought disorders were due to too much blood in the brain, so they would have the brain bleed out, that's how George Washington died.-Other scientists thought drugs like opium and marijuana were good treatments, nope.-Franz Mesmer believed hypnosis was the cure for disorders-Sigmund Freud developed the psychodynamic approach to treatment-Anna O. was a famous patient with many disorders like anxiety and phobias but mainly she couldn't drink water from a crystal glass during a heat wave, so they treated her through talk therapy and discovered a past experience with a dog made her conditioned to be nauseous at drinking water from a crystal glass.-Anna O. made doctors realize that a lot of disorders come from early experiences, they can be discovered and cured through talk therapy-Conflicts and stresses are repressed, psychoanalysis recovers those-Freud completely lied about Anna O. being cured, this caused concern about his approach. You cannot believe anything Freud says.-Psychosexual development stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genitalLecture 3 (January 27)-The learning approach-Classical conditioning, Ivan Pavlov-The pairing of a response with a stimulus-Little Albert, was scared of white rats because he associated it with the scary gong noise (Watson)-Black boots and sexual arousal: men were turned on by this woman with black boots, then eventually they were turned on just by her boots because they associated them with her-Extinction: expose the individual to the stimulus and don't follow up with the response, this process takes time, this helps cure conditioning-Operant conditioning: rewarding the responses, developed by BF Skinner and Thorndike-Concerns about the learning approach: it can't explain all symptoms (i.e. hallucinations), conditioning might actually be due to problem solving and cooperation instead of automatic response -The cognitive approach-Albert Ellis, decided himself he needed to overcome his fear of women. He would sit andstrike conversations with random people. His phobia disappeared because he learned not all women are hostile, they're pleasant. This is cognitive because you do something to change how your mind works.-Incorrect beliefs can come from stories you hear and experience with others-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, beliefs are tested as hypotheses, refined by Aaron Beck-Concerns about the cognitive approach: doctors argue that CBT effects are due to extinction instead of correcting beliefs. This is false.-Critics argue that beliefs are the result of disorders, not the cause. -Physiological approach-Hippocrates and humors-Development of this approach was delayed because they didn't have the right methods to study brain functioning at the time, it is still developing. We always learn something new about the brain.-Two components of the approach: biochemical problem in the brain, or a structural problem.-Three problems with brain chemistry: insufficient release of neurotransmitters, underactivity of inhibitory neurons-Treatments for chemical problems in the brain: psychotropic drugs change brain activity, Electroconvulsive therapy shock the brain to stimulate it, psychosurgery cuts nerve tracts to reduce brain activity Lecture 4 (January 29)-Anxiety is triggered by a stressor or chemical imbalance in the brain-Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal glands-Adrenal glands release epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol through the body which increase physiological arousal and makes you feel tense-Coping and defense mechanisms help reduce it, like denial-Anxiety causes declines in intellectual decline, muscle fatigue, hypertension, heart attacks, memory problems, fat around the midsection-Phobias are irrational fears that interfere with a person's daily life-Agoraphobia-fear of being in public because you'll embarrass yourself-Social phobia-fear of embarrassing yourself in a social situation-Specific phobia-any other kind of phobia-Phobias are due to symbolic representations of repressed conflicts, resolved through psychoanalysis-Vicarious conditioning-phobias that come from something you never had contact with but something you've seen or generalized-Behavior therapy extinguishes the fear, systematic desensitization-People with high levels of arousal are more likely to have greater fear responses to stimuli-Drugs help inhibit arousal and fear, anxiolytics-Benzodiazepines-drugs that increase activity of inhibitory neurons by increasing GABA-Antidepressants-increase serotonin, which helps activate inhibitory neurons-Anxious people focus on threats and are always looking for problems Lecture 5 (February 3)-Meditation is no different than simply resting, it does not put you in another state of mind.-Muscle relaxation training and biofeedback training are other treatments.-Compulsions-rituals that people feel the need to do over and over or else something badwill happen (i.e. washing hands constantly out of fear of getting dirty or sick).-Obsessions-persistent anxiety and provoking thoughts (i.e. worrying about the car accident that never


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