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SOC 100 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last Lecture II. We watched the Breakfast Cluba. Lunch scene to the endOutline of Current Lecture III. Social GroupsIV. From groups to networksV. OrganizationsVI. BureaucracyCurrent LectureSocial groups- Form the building blocks for society and for most social interactions- The sociologist George Simmel argued that the key element in determining the form of social relations in a group is the size of the groupo Simmel emphasized, the differences between social relations in a dyad (group of two) and a triad (group of three)o Dyad is the most intimate form of social life because the two members are mutually dependent on each other- if one member leaves the group, the group ceases to exist- When a third person joins a dyad, that person can fill the role of:o Mediator= the conflict resolvero Tertiusgaudens= the person who profits from disagreements from the otherso Divide et impera (divide and conquer)= the individual who purposefully breaks up the other two- As group size increases- the number of possible relationships increases. In a group of three, three possible relationships exist. But in a group of four, six possible relationships existSimmel- Studied small groups, parties, large groupsAsh testThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Is an experiment developed in the 1940s that shows how much people are influenced bythe actions or norms of a groupFrom groups to networks- Social network= set of relation-set of dyads- held together by ties between individuals- A tie is a set of stories that explains our relationship to the other members of our network, while a narrative is the sum of the stories contained in a series of ties- Embeddedness= refers to the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network- A structural hole is a gap b/t networks (or even two people) that would benefit from having the gap closed- Social capitalo The info, knowledge of people or ideas, and connections that help individuals enter preexisting networks or gain power in themo High amounts of social capital in a community generally means that the community is tightly knit and can come together to face challenges and make improvements.Network analysis in group research- Network analysis researchers use the basic concepts about groups and social networks that we have discussed to see how group life shapes individual behaviorOrganizations- Is any social network that is defined by a common purpose and has a boundary betweenits member ship and the rest of the social world- Formal organizations have a set of rules and guidelines to followo Democrat or Republican party- Informal organizations do not have these rules- Organizational culture= refers to shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group- Organizational structure= refers to the ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization- Institutional isomorphism refers to a constraining process that forces one organization toresemble other organizations that face the same set of environmental conditionsFour criticisms against bureaucracies- 1. Dehumanization- rather than treating clients and personnel as individuals, being treated as a case file- 2. Bureaucratic ritualism- bureaucrats can get so concerned with rules and regulations that it’s difficult for the organization to fulfill its goals. - 3. Oligarchy- power tends to be concentrated in the hands of a few people at the top of the pyramid- 4. Bureaucratic inertia- bureaucracies are sometimes so large and rigid they lose touch with reality and continue their policies even when their clients’ needs


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