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UVM ANTH 021 - Consumption and Exchange

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ANTH 021 1nd Edition Lecture 7 Outline of Last Lecture B. What are the five modes of livelihood? (cont.)C. How are the five modes of livelihood changing?II. Food Security, Modes of Livelihood and The Pull of the EarthA. Food SecurityB. Laurie Thorp: The Pull of the EarthOutline of Current Lecture I. Consumption and ExchangeA. ConsumptionB. ExchangeCurrent Lecture I. Consumption and ExchangeA. Consumption1. What is consumption?- The dominant way, in a culture, of using up goods and services- Two meanings/processeso A person’s intake in terms of eating or other ways of using things upo Output in terms of spending or using resources to obtain those things- Differences between economies based upon cash and noncash exchange- Consumption can be defined in part by microcultures (see examples in text)2. Modes of Consumption- Related to modes of livelihood- Based on the relationship between supply and demand- Two major modeso Minimalismo Consumerism- Consumption varies across cultures3. Leveling Mechanisms?These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- An important process in small-scale societies that work to keep people equal- Unwritten, culturally embedded rules that prevent an individual from becoming wealthier or more powerful - Maintained through social pressure and gossip- Q: Do we have leveling mechanisms in the US?4. Costs of Consumerism- Environmental consequences- Threats to cultural diversity- Increasing gap between the right and the poor5. Consumption Funds- Categories within a person’s or household’s budget used to provide for needs and desires- Of varying importance, depending on the cultural context and geographical location:o Basic needs fundo Recurrent costs fundo Entertainment fundo Ceremonial fundo Rent/tax fund6. Entitlement Theory (Amartya Sen)- Entitlements: culturally defined rights to provide for one’s life needs- Through entitlements (own land, money from job, inheritance) people provide for their consumption- Directo Most secureo Ie. Owning land that produces food- Indirecto Riskier, requires exchanging something in order to obtain needso Ie. Welfare checks7. Food Taboos- Cultural rules about what foods should and should not be consumed- Views of cultural materialists v. symbolic anthropologists- Ie. Pork, horse meat, human flesh?B. Exchange 1. What is Exchange?- The dominant way, in a culture, of transferring goods, services, and other items between and among people and groups- What is exchanged?o Material goodso Symbolic goodso Labor o Moneyo People2. Modes of Exchange- Balanced exchangeo Kula (described by Malinowski)- Unbalanced exchangeo Market exchangeo Gamblingo Thefo Exploitation3. Balanced Exchange: Generalized Reciprocity- Involves the least conscious sense of interest in material gain or ofwhat might be received in return- Main form of exchange in foraging societies- Also found among close kin and friends cross culturally- A pure gif is an extreme form4. Balanced Exchanged: Expected Reciprocity- Exchange of approximately equally valued goods or services between people of roughly equal social status- Exchange may be simultaneous or on an agreed upon schedule- If a party fails to complete the exchange, the relationship will break down5. Balanced Exchange: Redistribution- One person collects goods or money from many members of a group and provides social return at a later time- Involves some “centricity”- Possible inequality because what is returned not always equal in a material


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