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UW-Milwaukee BIOSCI 100 - Animal Architecture

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Animal ArchitectureSymmetryIII. Animal OrganizationSimple Squamous: composed of flattened cells that form a lining for capillaries, lungs, and other surfaces to permit diffusion of gases and fluids.Examples of Stratified Epithelial TissueBIO SCI 100 1st Edition Lecture 3 Outline of Last LectureI. Perpetual Change:II. Common DescentIII. Multiplication of SpeciesIV. GradualismV. Natural SelectionOutline of Current LectureI. Body PlansII. Body CavitiesIII. Animal OrganizationIV. TissueCurrent LectureAnimal ArchitectureI. Body PlansSymmetry- Identical size and shape on opposite sides of a median plane.- Spherical: any plane passing through the center divides it into equal halves. Example: Protozoans.- Radial: body forms can be divided into 2 equal halves by any longitudinal plane passing through the animal.o Example: Cnidaria.- Bilateral: body forms can be divided into 2 equal halves, right & left, along the Sagittal plane; adapted for forward motion/movement, occurs in most animal phyla.The head end is called the anteriorThe tail end is called the posterior/dorsalThe backside is called the dorsalThe belly side is called the ventralII. Body Cavities3 major body plans of bilateral metazoansThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Acoelomate: Without body cavity.o Ex: Planaria (flatworms)- Pseudocoelomate: Not a true body cavity, lacks peritoneum. o Ex: Nematodes- Eucoelomate: True body cavity (all vertebrates).o Ex: PeritoneumSegmentation:- Serial repetition of body segments- More obvious in Annelids (earth worms)- Organs, nervous tissue, muscles repeated in each segmentCephalization:- Differentiation of head region- Only in bilaterally symmetrical animals.- Concentration of nervous tissue, sensory organs, and mouth.- Improved sensation of environment for animals moving head-firstIII. Animal Organization5 levels of animal organization- Protoplasmico Unicellularo Protozoans- Cellular- Cell-tissue- Tissue-organ- Organ-systemo Multicellular (Included in Cellular, Cell-Tissue, Tissue-Organ, and Organ-System)o Metazoans (Included in Cellular, Cell-Tissue, Tissue-Organ, and Organ-System)Protoplasmic- Unicellular organisms- All functions occur within a single cell- Each cell contains organelles with specific functionso Ex: Protozoans Cellular- Group of cells with different functions- Cells are not grouped into tissuesCell-tissue- Similar cells organized into layers with common function o Ex: Nerve net in Cnidaria.Tissue-organ- Groups of tissues organized into organso Ex: Planaria eye spots, digestive tract in flatworms).Organ-system- Highest level of organization- Group of organs performing a functiono Examples:  Reproductive Circulatory Digestive Respiratory UrinaryTISSUE: similar cells organized into layers that have a common function.Four Types1. Epithelial Tissue:- Sheet of cells covering an internal or external surface.- Can form glands that secrete mucus, hormones, or enzymes.- Function: protection; lines organs of body cavities.- Classified based on cell form and number of layers- Examples:o Simple (single layer of cells) and Stratified (multiple layers).Examples of Simple Epithelial Tissue- Simple Squamous: composed of flattened cells that form a lining for capillaries, lungs, and other surfaces to permit diffusion of gases and fluids.- Simple Cuboidal: composed of boxlike cells that line small ducts and tubules (like those in the kidneys). Have secretory & absorptive functions.- Simple Columnar: composed of elongated cells. Line highly absorptive surfaces, like the intestines & reproductive tract.Examples of Stratified Epithelial Tissue- Stratified Squamous: layers of cells; new cells - Constantly being produced due to abrasion. - Lines oral cavity and esophagus- Stratified Transitional: layers of cells; accommodates extensive stretching. - Lines urinary tract and bladder.2. Connective Tissue:- Combination of a few cells and many fibers in a fluid matrix.- Functions: binding and support- Examples: o Loose , Dense , *Cartilage , *Bone (*Vertebrates only)1. Loose: anchors epithelial tissue and organs 2. Dense: Collagen fibers; forms tendons, ligaments 3. Cartilage: Fibers packed in a gel matrix; support 4. Bone: Calcified for


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