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ODU OPMT 303 - Process Selection and Facility Layout

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OPMT 303 1st Edition Lecture 4 Outline of Last Lecture1. Reasons for Products and service design2. Major Functions of Strategy Design3. Product Design4. Service DesignOutline of Current Lecture1. Process selection and facility layout2. Characteristics of various processes3. Layouts4. Product Layout Objectives5. Steps to Design an Assembly Line6. Mass Customizations7. Strategic capacity planning for products and servicesCurrent LectureI. Process selection and facility layouta. Process selection- deciding on the way production of goods or services will be organizedi. Occurs when new products or services being plannedii. Also occurs due to technological changes in products and equipmentb. Forecast, product and service design, technological influence process selectionc. It effects facilities and equipment, layout, and work designII. Characteristics of various processesa. Job Shopi. Used in low volume and high variety goods/servicesii. High variety of productiii. High flexibility with general purpose equipment and skilled workersThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.iv. Random/jumbled product flowb. Batchi. Used in moderate volume of goods or servicesii. A moderate degree in variety of productsiii. Equipment not as flexible as job shop but still is intermittentiv. Dominant product flowc. Repetitivei. Higher volume of standardized goods or servicesii. Special equipment with low skill workiii. Dominant production flowiv. Low variety of products with modificationsd. Continuousi. High volume of nondiscrete, highly standardized outputii. Standard variety of productiii. Dominant production flowiv. Special equipment with high or low skilled worke. Projecti. Used for non-routine work for unique set of objectives to do in a limited timeii. One product being offerediii. Equipment can be flexible or not iv. Skills range from low to highIII. Layoutsa. Configuration of departments, work centers, equipment, and people with particular emphasis on movement of work (customers or materials) through the systemb. Four different types of layoutsi. Process layout- arrangement of people and equipment according to the similarity of jobs performed1. Maintenance cost lower because equipment less specialized2. Requires frequent adjustments3. Can handle a variety of processing requirementii. Product layout-arrangement of people and equipment according to the sequence of operations which are performed on the product1. Production line- standardized layout arrangement according to a fixed sequence of production tasks2. Assembly line- standardized layout arranged according to a fixed sequence of assembly tasks3. Achieve a high degree of labor and equipment utilization4. Preventive maintenance- periodic inspection and replacement of worn parts or those with high failure ratesiii. Fixed position layout- people and equipment are brought to site of a project (construction)1. Used in large construction projects, ship building, and production of large aircraft and space mission rockets2. Attention focused on timing of material and equipment deliveries3. Also used in farming, firefighting, road building, home building, remodeling, and drilling for oiliv. Group Technology layout- grouping together of parts or products into families byprocessing operations so that all members of the family are processed in a miniature factory, called GT cell1. Items grouped by size, shape, and function2. Three methods for accomplishmenta. Visual inspectionb. Examination of designc. Production flow analysisIV. Product Layout Objectivesa. Minimize number of stationi. Minimize workforceii. Minimize handling costb. Balance assembly linei. Each station should be assigned an equal amount of workii. Cycle time- time interval between completing two successive units1. Maximum time allowed to complete all tasks at each stationV. Steps to design an Assembly Linea. First draw a precedence diagramb. Next calculate the cycle timei. C=operating time/desired output ratec. Lastly balance the linei. Choose the task with the greatest number of followersii. Break a tie by choosing a task with the longest completion timed. Two rules to always followi. Always preserve the sequence of operationsii. Do not ever exceed the cycle timee. Evaluation of the Solutioni. Number of station= the same as the theoretical minimum number of stationsii. There is not an equal amount of work going on at each stationiii. Line efficiency=total number of tasks/(no of stations*cycle time)iv. Balance delay- percentage of idle time of a line1. 100%-line efficiency=balance delay2. 95% average line efficiency in USVI. Mass Customizationa. CIMi. Computer integrated manufacturing- to link various parts of an organization to achieve rapid response to customer orders and/or product changesii. Integrates information from other areas of an organization with manufacturingiii. CAD1. Computer Aided Design- computer software to create or modify an engineering design, including geometric modeling, stress and strain analysis, and simulation of part movement, drafting, and storing specifications2. Major benefit of CAD is the increased productivity of designersiv. CAM1. Computer Aided Manufacturing- linking NC (numerically controlled machines), CNC ( computerized numerical control), and robotics tomonitor production process, coordinate flow of materials between machines, and routing or rerouting jobsa. NC-machines programmed to follow a set of processing instructions based on mathematical relationships that tell the machine the details of the operation being performed.b. CNC- individual machines have their own computerb. FMSi. Flexible manufacturing system- includes a number of work stations, an automated material handling system and system supervisory computer control to decrease the tome to change tools and fixtures, load and unload machines and move materials to and from manufacturing cells1. Automated storage/retrieval system/automated guided vehiclesc. CAPPi. Computer Aided Process Planning- plans machining operations and determines routing between machines1. Robotics2. CAD3. CAMd. Cellular Manufacturingi. Manufacturing call included the machines and tools necessary to efficiently produce a family of partse. GTi. Group technology- a process of coding and classifying families of parts accordingto similarities in their geometric characteristics or in their material or


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