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IUB ANAT-A 215 - Study guide

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6 levels of body organization 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 3 planes of reference1. - 2. - 3. - Body RegionsA. Cephalic region or head=a) Eye:b) Nose:c) Cheek:d) Mouth:e) Chin: B. Cranial RegionC. Neck or Cervical RegionD. Thorax or Thoracic Regiona) b) c) d) E. Abdominopelvic Regiona) b) F. Upper extremity a) b) c) d) e)f) i. ii. G. Lower extremitya) b) i. ii. c) d) e) Body CavitiesA. Dorsal (posterior) body cavitya) b) B. Ventral (Anterior) Body cavitya) i. ii. iii. C. Abdominopelvic Cavitya) b) Cell division lecturesPlasma membrane:- structure: - proteins:- glycoproteins:- selectively permeableFunctions of plasma membrane- no energy=o - energy required: o two types:i. ii.  3 types:   Cytoplasmic organelles1. mitochondrion makes:2. ribosomes involved in (two kinds):- - 3. endoplasmic reticulum:- - 4. Golgi Apparatus: near the nucleus shaped like:- Packages material for:- Forms:5. Lysosomes contain:- Enzymatically breaks down:6. Centrioles needed for:Nucleus- Nuclear envelope has:- Nucleolus contains:- Chromatin:DNA composition/replication- It is made up of:- Shape:- Process of free nucleotides attaching to two half-ladders and forming two identical DNA strands: Cells divided into two groups1. 2. Cell cycle subdivided into two phases1.  2. Mitosis produces:1. - chromatin becomes supercoiled to form: - 2 chromatids (coiled) joined by a centromere:chromatid is: - extend from centrioles to the centromere - dismantled: 2. - chromosomes: 3. - two chromatids:- shortening: - each chromatid: 4. - chromosomes: - nuclear envelope+ nucleolus: - develops: ***division of cytoplasm occurs: Meiosis=cell division where:- produces: - starts off with one cell that has:- DNA gets duplicated:- Cell now contains: Two consecutive meiotic divisions1. - i. process of: allows for chromosomes line up in groups of four:ii. occurs:genetic material exchanged b/w:- i. cell finishes this by:2. - - Tissues Lectures4 basic kinds of tissue1. 2. 3. 4. Characteristics of Epithelia- covers:- lines:- forms:- very:- has a:- bound to underlying tissue by:- doesn’t have: Types of simple epithelia1. - - location:- function:2. - - location: - function: 3. - may have: - location:- function:4. - some kinds have: - location:- functionTypes of stratified epithelia1. a) i. superficial layers consist of:ii. location:iii. function:2. a)i. superficial cells are:ii. location:iii. function:3. b) some cells are: c) location: d) function: Glandular epithelia are specialized epithelia tissues that have:1. a) i. location: ii. function: b) i. ii. iii.Characteristics of connective tissues- derived from:- cells don’t have:- consists of:- containsa) i. ii. iii. b) - varies: Connective tissue proper1. a) i. contains: ii. many: iii. vascularity: iv. locationv. functionb) i. contains: ii. location: iii. function:iv. vascularity: 2. a) i. contains:ii. arrangement:iii. location:iv. function:v. vascularityb) i. has a lot:ii. contains:iii. arrangement:iv. location:v. functionvi. vascularity:Cartilage- cells=- cells in=- vascularity:- cells are not:1. a) matrix contains:b) location:c) function:2. a) matrix contains:b) location:c) function:3. a) matrix contains:b) location:c) function:Bone—matrix=3 kinds of cells found in bone1. 2.  3. 2 kinds of bone tissue found within each of your bones1. 2. Vascular Tissue (Blood)- contains:- function:Classification of muscle tissue1. - found:- involuntary- shape of cells:- one centrally-located:2. - found: - cells:- some cells are: - has one or two: - discs:- striations3. - voluntary- cells:- nuclei:- nuclei located:- striationsNervous tissue:1.  2.  Layers of the Integument1. - composed of:- vascularity:- thick skin=- thin skin=2. - composed primarily of:- contains:3. - stores: - anchors:- composed of:Layers of epidermis1. - rests on the:- cells are very:- highly:2. - several layers of:- small degree of:3. - layers of:- cells undergo:4. - layers of:- only found in:5. - layersCells of the epidermis1. 2. 3. 4. Layers of the dermisA. - composed of:- contains:B. - contains: Epidermal DerivativesA. - 3 parts:- function:- muscle:B. - formed from:- made out of:- function:C. - 3 kinds i. associated with:functions: ii. - type found everywhere:releases:- other type:regions:secretes onto:releasesiii. modified:in: cerumen is: Bone LecturesSkeleton subdivided into A. Axial SkeletonB. Appendicular skeletonBone shapes1.2. 3. 4. Gross anatomy of a long bone1. 2. lined with:contains:3.  in the spaces of the spongy bone=4. helps: 5. function: 6. exception: fibers:3 kinds of cells1. 2. 3. Compact bone made up of:Osteons consist of: a) contains:b) 3: c) mature bone cells:d) spaces where these resides:e) tiny channels that radiate from: contains cytoplasmic projections of:f) connect: g) h) made byBone II2 types of bone tissue formation1. - differentiate into osteoblasts:- forms:- replace woven bone:2. - used to form:a) first perichondrium is invaded by: cells in perichondrium turn into:perichondrium transformed into:b) osteoblasts secrete osteoid onto: forms:c) chondrocytes: cartilage undergoes:chondrocytes: d) penetrate inside:forms:e) repeated at the ends of the bone:centers:f) removed: (except at the articular surfaces of bone and ends of diaphysis)responsible for: plate is active for: g) new bone is being laid down by: remove bone from inside of diaphysis:create:Process of bone formation and removal- means by which the diameter of the bone=Kinds of fractures-  -  - -  - -  -  - Fracture repair- when bone breaks, this forms:- formed at site of fracture: - soft callus replaced with: - newly repaired bone is: ArticulationsTwo ways to classify joints1. a) connects bones:no:b) connects bones:no:c) connects bones: contains: 2. a)  b)  c) In joints there is an inverse relationship b/w:Fibrous jointsA. held together by:joint=ex:B. held together by: joint=ex:C. attached to:held together by: joint:Cartilaginous jointsA. attached by: joint:ex:B. connected by: joint: no: ex:Synovial Jointsall are: A. Structure- Held together by:- Capsule:  membrane: i. Makes:ii. Lubrication reduces: iii. Acts as:- Fluid


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