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IUB ANAT-A 215 - introduction notes

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1/12/15 INTRODUCTION I. SYLLABUS & COURSE POLICIES II. BODY ORGANIZATIONA. Chemical Level: atoms and moleculesB. Cellular Level: Cell: basic structural and functional unit of life living structure—has the ability to construct itself C. Tissue Level: Tissue: similar cells that come together perform a common function4 diff types of tissuesD. Organ Level: Organ: 2 or more kinds of tissues integrated to perform specific functions E. Organ System Level: Organ system: organs having related functionsF. Organismal Level: Organism: has several organ systems which work together to maintain life Histology: study of tissuesIII. PLANES OF REFERENCE & DESCRIPTIVE TERMINOLOGYA. Anatomical Position: uprightfeet paralleleyes & palms forward(looking at front of body)B. Planes of Reference: Imaginary lines or actual dissecting cuts (sections) which may be used to "section" the body or an organ.1. Sagittal: divides the body or organ into unequal right and left portions. (can use this term in regard to imaginary line or physical cut)a. midsagittal: divides the body or organ into equal left and right HALVES2. Coronal (= Frontal) Plane: divides the body or organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portionscoronal and frontal mean the same thing3. Transverse (= Horizontal, Cross-sectional) plane: divides the body or organ into superior (top) and interior (bottom) portions C. Directional Terms for the Body: Terms are in table 1.2 on p. 12, (and fig 1.7 on p. 13) - LEARN THEM!! Ex: Medial: closer to midlineLateral: away from the midline IV. BODY REGIONSA. Cephalic Region or Head : 1. Facial Region a. Orbital – eye b. Nasal – nose c. Buccal –cheek d. Oral – mouth e. Mental –chin 2. Cranial Region –area covered by the scalp B. Neck or Cervical Region (neck= cervix) [cervix means a narrowing]C. Thorax or Thoracic Region (chest)1. Pectoral Regions –left and right chest [pectoral means chest] 2. Mammary Regions (breasts) – sit atop pectoral regions3. Sternal Region – between pectoral regions4. Axillary Regions – armpitsD. Abdominopelvic Region1. Abdominal Region - located between the diaphragm and the top of the hip boneslocated below the diaphragm and above the top of the hips 2. Pelvic Region – between the hip bones E. Upper Extremity1. Deltoid Region - shoulder2. Brachial Region – arm; shoulder to elbow [brachi means arm]3. Cubital (front = Antecubital) Region - elbow region4. Antebrachial Region - forearm5. Carpal Region - the "wrist"6. Hand (Manus Region)a. Palmar – front of hand b. Dorsum – back of the hand F. Lower Extremity1. Femoral Region – thigh 2. Knee: a. Patellar Region - front surface of knee b. Popliteal Region – back of the knee3. Crural Region - leg, from knee to ankle4. Tarsal Region – ankle 5. Foot (Pedal Region)a. Plantar - soleb. Dorsum – top surfaceV. BODY CAVITIESA. Dorsal (Posterior) Body Cavity [dorsal refers to the back]1. Cranial Cavity - brain resides here 2. Vertebral Cavity – spinal cord resides hereB. Ventral (Anterior) Body Cavity1. Thoracic Cavity (chest cavity)a. Pleural - a lung resides in eachb. Mediastinum – cavity between lungs c. Pericardial Cavity (within mediastinum) contains the heart2. Abdominopelvic Cavitya. Abdominal Cavity – from thoracic diaphragm to top ofhip bonesb. Pelvic Cavity – between hip bones Which of the following refers to the region from the knee to the ankle?a. Femoralb. Crural ******c. Patellard. Popliteale.


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