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GSU CRJU 3410 - Biological Theories

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CRJU 3410 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture I. Positivist Schoola. Determinismb. People are compelledc. Environmental d. Medical ModelII. Positive Philosophya. Saint Simonb. Comtec. Natural Laws III. Empirical/Experimental Scientific Influencesa. Guerry&Queteletb. Darwin IV. Differencesa. Positivism vs. Classical/NeoclassicalV. General Problems Outline of Current Lecture I. Biological Theories II. Origins of Biological Explanation III. Origins of Biological TheoriesIV. PhysiognomyV. Phrenology VI. Criminal AnthropologyVII. Criminal Anthro continuesThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.VIII. American Criminal Anthropology IX. Criminal Body TypesX. Primitive Biological TheoriesXI. Genetics and Crime Current LectureI. Biological Theories a. Criminals are physiologically different than noncriminalsi. Rational choice thought all criminals were the same, and committed crime based on choices. Here, they thing it’s a genetic difference.ii. You are born with it, caused, rather than free will b. Early bio criminologistsi. Behave different because structurally they are differentii. Biological inferiority c. Modern bio criminologists i. Behavior is the result of a complex interaction between biological and environmental factors II. Origins of Biological Explanation a. Evil Spirits & Crimei. Blamed evil spirits for troubling eventsii. Apotropaic punishment: actions that people used in order to ward off evilspiritsiii. Corporal Punishment: harsh punishment to the criminals because they believed enough pain to the body would make the spirit not want to live there any more b. George Voldi. Middle Ages: used the above treatments, very deterministic, individualistic and prescientific 1. During this time they government was based on theocratic (church) ideas, so the punishments aligned with those ideals ii. Inquisition: state sponsored witch hunting c. Renaissance Erai. Witchcraft involved free will- thought the people asked the spirit to come into them1. Salem witch trials displayed this idea III. Origins of Biological Theoriesa. Nature and Crime used observation and deduction b. Sought to understand the nature of things using SCIENCEc. Observable exterior things to explain crime behavior instead of internal evil spiritsIV. Physiognomya. Judgments about mental qualities, character, personality based on external physical characteristics. b. J. Babtistadella Porte (1535-1615)i. He studied cadavers of criminals and looked for similarities. ii. Said that these body features made them criminaliii. Specific characteristics indicated certain criminal types (small ears, bushy eyebrows)c. John Caspar Lavateri. Fragments-physical qualitiesii. Shifty eyes, beardless men, weak chins more likely to be delinquent. iii. He talked about physical behaviors as well as the looks (fragments) iv. Suggested phrenology had more promise than his own studies d. “Ugly Criminals”: an article written by a gsu member that said ugly people were more likely to be criminal, statistically. But he acknowledged the spuriousness. He said that ugly people had less friendship so they lacked opportunity from the human capital they lost by being ugly, so they fell back on crime V. Phrenology: study of skull’s shape and protuberancesa. Dents and bumps on the skull, based on where they are, show you that you’re more likely to be a criminal and if it will be in the future or now b. Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)i. Called it Cranioscopyii. He would visit prisons and mental institutions to study already incarcerated people there and then categorized them. c. Johns Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832)i. Emphasized skull shape and facial imperfections ii. Said that diagnosed people could change and reform their behavior.d. Today, phrenology and physiognomy have been rejected as unscientific VI. Criminal Anthropology a. Lombroso said crime derived from arrested evolution (atavism)b. The atavistic human believed in evolution and studied Darwin to determine that criminals were people who did not fully evolve.c. Their stigmata (peculiar physical characteristics) were signs they were in arrested evolution. These characteristics are not the cause of crime, arrested evolution IS the cause of crime. d. People didn’t really believe him so he introduced environmental factors later e. Sigmata: facial asymmetry, enormous jaw, excessive arm length are people who do crime for fun (sounds like apes) CRIMINAL BEHAVIORACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOR VII. Criminal Anthropologya. English Convict (Gorings Refutation) to Lombrosob. He looked at correlation between characteristics Lombroso claimed and found nothing. c. No such thing as criminal typed. The American Criminal (Hootons Rejoinder) to Lombrosoe. Said more than half of those measurements WERE found in criminals. f. The physically inferior were more likely to commit crime (tall thin men more likely to be murders and robbers. Tall heavy more likely to do property crime). g. However, his comparison group was flawed (used college students, police, and firemen and compared them to the poor and hungry criminals)VIII. American Criminal Anthropology a. Basically Americanized Lombroso’s work by integrating atavism with the generation theory-not just arrested evolution, but the breeding in the criminal areas devolves people b. Tempered it into the Victorian age (backward evolution) i. The start of criminology in America c. Physical characteristic mirrored your insided. Origins of american criminology in this domain yielded 3 long term problemsi. Fluid boundaries, regardless of expertiseii. Lacks an agreed upon method of studyiii. Tied to eugenics troubled many people (made it to where people ere afraid to go back to biology to explain crime)IX. Criminal Body Types (somotypes were the different body types)a. Mesomorph-athletic body type, aggressive, most delinquentb. Ectomorph, skinny, fragile, small face, introverted, and sensitive to noiseEvolutionary ForcesImmature EvolutionAtavistic TendenciesMature Evolution“Normal” Tendenciesc. Endomorph- rare within criminal population, fat, want comfort and love X. Assessing Primitive Biological Theoriesa. Virtually no way to test themb. Best science of the day, but critics still argued what constituted good sciencei. They didn’t have the scientific advances we have today. But even within the time there was


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