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TAMU PSYC 311 - Basic Concepts Regarding Evolution

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PSYC 311 1st Edition Lecture 6Overview of Current Lecture - Homologous Similarities- Homoplastic Similarities o Parallelismo Convergenceo Analogyo Mimicry (Batesian, Mullerian, Mertensian, of environmental features)- Basic Concepts Regarding Evolutiono Homologous Similarities (homology) Similarities in structure and/or behavior due to heredity The greater the number of homologues, the greater the degree of relatedness - Linnaeus – toxonomical differentiation o Ex: foreleg of mammals – hoof vs. hand vs. fin vs. wingo Ex: horseshoe crabs less related to crabs and more related to spiders Blood composition o Ex: Woodrat less related to lab rat, more related to meadow mouse  Tooth structure o Homoplastic Similarities  Due to factors other than heredity  Parallelism – similar structure/behavioral characteristics that developed independently after genetic isolation occurred between related animals - Marsupials and placental mammal counterparts developed similar characteristics due to similar ecological niches in different isolated land masses - Good solution may show up in more than one place Convergence – similar structure and/or behavioral characteristics acquired independently from two different ancestors - Due to exposure to similar environmental pressures – have to look at fossil recordThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Evolutionary Stable Strategies o Ex: glidingo Ex: spines – porcupines (rodent), hedgehogs (insectivore), echidnas (monotreme, egg laying mammal) Analogy – similar functional characteristics from two different hereditary lines - Ex: wings of birds/bats/insects  Mimicry – similarities with independent heredity - One adopts, over time, the characteristics of another - Batesian mimicry – one species mimics the characteristics of a poisonous/distasteful of dangerous specieso Ex: monarch (poisonous) and viceroy butterflies o Ex: coral snake (poisonous) and king snake - Mullerian mimicry – two distasteful, poisonous species mimic one another o Only one dies, and all the rest of both species get immunity – as opposed to one of each species dying o Ex: cuckoo bee and yellow jacket - Mertensian mimicry: very poisonous species mimic not so poisonous species o Ex: copperheads/other snakes will rattle their tales in dry leaves so that predators will leave them alone like they leave rattlesnakes alone - Mimicry of environmental features – lure, camouflage, reproductive strategy o Ex: orchid evolved to look like female beetle, so male beetles spread polleno Ex: insects that look like rose thorns o Ex: alligator snapping


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