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WSU GEOLOGY 101 - Minerals (Cont.)

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GEOLOGY 101 1st Edition Lecture 7 Outline of Last Lecture I. MineralsII. AtomsIII. IsotopesIV. Type of Mineral and Why?Outline of Current Lecture I. Mineral Identificationa. Mineral PropertiesII. Mineral GroupsIII. Hydrothermal FluidsCurrent LectureMineral Identification:- Different minerals look different because they have different physical properties- This is a result of chemical composition (formula) and the crystalline structure.Mineral Properties:- Coloro Least reliable – do not use aloneo Color depends on the presence of certain ions, such as iron, chromium, cobalt- Luster:o How the surface reflects lighto Metallic vs. Non-Metallic- Streak:o Color of a mineral in a powdered state.- Cleavage:o The tendency of mineral’s to break along planes of weakness.o Weaknesses within the structure allow the mineral to break along specific planes. This is called a cleaving.o If it breaks not on a plane, it’s called a fracture.Special Properties of Select Minerals:- Smell and Taste:o Sulfur or HaliteThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Fluorescence:o Some minerals glow under UV Rays- Magnetism:o Magnetite- Effervescence:o Calcite reacts with HCl (acid).- Double Refraction:o Light is split into 2 rays = 2 images.Mineral Groups:- Silicates:o Most abundant mineral group in the crust.o Dominate all three rock typeso Composed of Silicon and Oxygen = Silica tetrahedrono Crystal Structure: Isolated, Single Chain, Double Chain, Sheet and Framework- Non-Silicates:o Carbonates, Oxides, Sulfides, Sulfates, Native Elements- So why do some minerals have nice crystal forms and others do not?o If the mineral grows slowly and has space it will tend to form nice crystals,o If many different minerals are growing at the same time and they are touching each other then they will grow together.- Asbestos:o Asbestos is the commercial definition (for Federal regulation purposes) for minerals that are flexible, chemically and thermally resistant and can be woven.o Fibrous Crystal Formo Previously used in building products (tiles, etc.) and insulation products.o Heavy exposure to some types of asbestos has been linked to lung cancer. Mesotheliomao NOT ALL FORMS of Asbestos are linked to lung disease but the Fed. Gov’t treats them all alike.How do minerals form?- Chemical reactions between elements.- Crystallization – the growth of a solid from a gas or liquid.o Lower the temperature of a liquid to below its freezing point.o Evaporates: Liquids evaporate from a solution forming a supersaturated solution which results in mineral deposits- Metamorphism:o High heat and pressure allows different minerals to form while still in the solid state (nothing melts)o Garnets and other metamorphic minerals formo Diffusion: The slow movement of atoms due to thermal energy (heat).Hydrothermal Fluids:- Hydrothermal fluids are created by the circulation of water through hot rock or near a magma chamber.- The water is heated and is able to dissolve elements forming a weak acid solution.- The hot acid solution is able to leach and pick up small amounts of gold and other metals and elements. - The hot fluids rise and as they do they can precipitate the metals (by boiling, a change oftemperature, change in acidity, or a change in pressure.)- The result is that the gold and other metals are left behind and


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