New version page

Pitt SOC 0010 - Sociological Research

This preview shows page 1 out of 3 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 3 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Sociological Research- How do we “know” something?- Authority Parents, president etc. - Tradition - Personal experience - Common sense- Media representations How a subject is dealt with on the news/tv - Myths and urban legends - Everyday research- We are all doing sociological research everyday- Problems with “everyday knowledge” and “every day research”  Based on immediate surroundings Not systematic Based on assumptions Make conclusions with inadequate info Tend to make conclusions that protect our interest and beliefs - Have a difficult time processing stuff that goes against what we believe - Errors of Reasoning- Overgeneralization If we know something about someone and we project that onto everyone who is like that- Selective observation Only observe those cases that support our opinions or beliefs  When you notice something about a group (play their music loud) you’ll notice it but you wont notice the people like that that don’t do that - Inaccurate Observation  Don’t always know what were seeing so could see something and make an assumption and it could be wrong - Illogical reasoning We might notice that when school starts people will wear sandals therefore sandals are a better form a footwear for the beginning of school than anything else - Relating it to weather, not school time- Must observe systematically - Resistance to change Won’t change ideas even if new info is given - Social Scientific Research- Social scientists Use Systematic, careful and controlled date collection processes  Ask good controlled questions  Carefully interpret the data and draw conclusions When presenting the results they detail the research process so that other scientists can replicate their findings - Research Process- Sociologists attempt to follow the scientific method which includes several steps Wonder  Develop a research question Research design Gathering data Data analysis Drawing conclusions - Research methods- Research methods are standard rules that social scientists follow when trying to establish a casual relationship between social element  Quantitative methods seek to obtain information about eh social world that is in, or can be converted to numeric form Qualitative methods attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form - Approaches to research - Inductive Reasoning: draws conclusions by studying general observations - Deductive Reasoning: involves creating a specific research question about afocused point Starts with a theory - Causality vs. Correlation- Causality is the idea that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another factor - Sociologists conduct research to try to prove causation- To prove causation, correlation and time order are established and alternative explanations are ruled out- People who have fender benders on their way to work … were they already in a bad mood or did the car accident put them in a bad mood? Two things happening at the same time, and effecting each other  Causation: being in a bad mood causes car accidents or visa versa - Reverse causation  The more fireman fighting a fire, the bigger the fire is - Does not prove that the fireman caused the fire so can’t depend on initial causation explanation - Spurious relationship  Something that varies at the same rate but something outside that relationship that causes them to vary (ice cream consumption goes up and shark attacks go up but they don’t cause each other its because more people are at the beach because it’s the summer so more shark attacks)- Variables- Dependent variable is the outcome that the researcher is trying to explain- Independent variable is a measured factor that the researcher believes hada causal impact on the dependent variable- What makes good research- Valid, reliable and generalizable Validity: does the study measure what it is intended to measure? Reliability: if you conduct the study again, will you get the same results? Generalizability: will the findings of this study apply to some other population or group of people? - Tools of research- Survey research:  Most common  People answer poll or question - Participant observation Sociologist becomes a part of the group and studies or observes the behavior of the group members - Content analysis Measures the cultural artifact of what people write, say, see and hear Studies communications people produce as a way of creating a picture of their society Cultural Artifacts include magazines, tv programs, fairy tales, comic books, or popular music - Historical research Examines sociological themes over time Date comes from: official records, church records, town archives, private diaries, oral history Authenticity of the source is critical, as the quality of the data depends on it - Evaluation research - Controlled experience Useful for determining cause and effect patterns Two different groups are created- Experimental group: exposed to the factor/variable being examined- Control group: not exposed to the factor/variable being tested - Research Ethics - Personal values- Researchers must meet codified standards, which are set by professional associations, academic institutions, or research centers, when conducting studies- Researchers must guard against causing physical, emotional, or psychological harm to their


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Sociological Research and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Sociological Research and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?