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UAB BY 116 - Neuronal Physiology

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I. Neural PhysiologyA. Neural reflux contains CNS and PNS and there is a 2 way communication between the two1. Central nervous system (CNS) – brain and spinal cord2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)B. What are we communicating?1. Activation of sensory receptorsa) Afferent- info from body goes to specific analysis centers in brainb) Efferent- information from brain to bodyc) Sensory neurons all go to brain2. Controlling body function by communicatingC. 3 parts of the brain1. Cognitive- reason2. Emotional- Behavior3. Homeostatic- SurvivalD. Efferent neurons- Autonomic v. Somatic1. Autonomic – involuntarya) sympathetic- action, fight or flight, from the thoracolunbar regionb) parasympathetic- rest and digest, from the craniosacral region2. Somatic- voluntary (control)a) stimulation of lack of muscle stimulationE. Variety of Reflexes and Cannon’s Postulates1. complex organization must have more or less effective self-righting adjustments in order to prevent a check on its functions when stressed2. Reflex typesa) Homeostatic- blood chemistry (plieotropic effects- multiple changes take place with single chemical change), fluid, thermal, metabolic(1) Antagonistic Principle= plieotropic principles (many changes as a result of one minor change)b) Somatic- Body movements and posturec) Tonic- Constant presence, “tone”- posture(1) Adjustment up= increase in tone(2) Adjustment down= decrease in toned) Circadian Rhythms- Biological clock, consciousness, reproduction, metabolism- based on sleep/ wake, dark/light cyclee) feed forward- anticipated a need and responds3. Kinds of Nervous refluxesa) Simple v. Complex reflux(1) simple- must have sensory input- usually harmful(a) inherent input(b) spinal- monosynaptic= not present in the brain, very dependent on hardwiring(i) hardwiring- physical connectedness of neurons receiving, giving(c) subconscious- everything occurs below consciousness(d) protective action(2) complex(a) inherent/ learned(b) ascends to the brain- polysynaptic(c) voluntary- somatic (hopping around hurt)(d) involuntary- homeostatic (crying if the pain is bad)(e) coordinate conscious and subconscious behaviorb) Neural hormonal reflux- signal is produced in neuron and is released to blood supply, then travels to target (ex. Oxytocin, vasopressin)(1) Biological clock is a threat to the stimulus(2) after stimulus, the signal is introduced to Hypothalamic neural hormone systemc) Tropic Neuroendocrine(1) neurons in hypothalamus (neuroendocrine center)(2) controls all involuntary homeostasis(3) hypothalamus controls pituitary “master gland”- either will release hormone or not (also controls adrenal gland over the kidneys)F. Neuronal Impulse1. Dendritic end is the receiving end of neurona) relays down to axon terminal2. Neuron= fundamental cell of nervous physiology3. Fundamental needs of a neurona) Must physically receive stimulib) must transduce stimuli to electrical eventc) must relay electrical eventd) must transduce electrical event to a chemical secretion4. Functional Classes of Neuronsa) Bipolar/ Unipolar – sensory/afferent, are part of the PNS and CNS(1) long, dendritic end then cell body and long axon end(2) long dendritic end receives environmental stimulib) Dendritic/ Anaxonic – connecting, most abundant neuron in CNS(1) very small(2) make connections between afferent and processorsc) Multipolar/ Motor- originate in CNS(1) large receiving end, but short neuron overall(2) usually found in muscle cells and glands, but originate in CNS5. Neuronal Circuits- Neuron to neuron linksa) complexity- depends on the degree of presynaptic and post synaptic organizationb) information is always a combinationc) Types(1) Divergence- send information from one neuron to multiple targets(2) convergence- signals from many locations brought together to one particular neuron(3) serial- very fast, straight-line hardwiring(4) parallel- information to two different locations but the response is different in those locations6. Neuroglia- organizing and protecting supporta) Myelin- lipoproteins, nonpolar insulation(1) Oligodendrites in CNS(2) Schwann cells in PNSb) Astrocytes (CNS) and Satellite cells (PNS)- provide protection(1) work to push individual neurons awayc) Waste in CNS – there is no need in PNS because of urinary system(1) Microglia- phagocytic cells that take away waste (modified immune cells)d) Cerebral spinal Fluid (CSF)- only in CNS(1) ependymal cells produce CSF to move products around the CNSLecture 7 Outline of Last Lecture I. MetabolismA. Metabolic PathwayB. We participate in Energy CycleC. Model of Cellular MetabolismD. ATP synthesis (All processes)Outline of Current LectureI. Neuronal PhysiologyA. Neural reflux contains CNS and PNSB. What are we communicating?C. 3 parts of the brainD. Efferent neuronsE. Variety of Reflexes and Cannon’s PostulatesF. Neural ImpulseCurrent LectureI. Neural PhysiologyA. Neural reflux contains CNS and PNS and there is a 2 way communication between the two1. Central nervous system (CNS) – brain and spinal cord2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)B. What are we communicating?1. Activation of sensory receptorsa) Afferent- info from body goes to specific analysis centers in brainb) Efferent- information from brain to bodyc) Sensory neurons all go to brain2. Controlling body function by communicatingC. 3 parts of the brain These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. BY 116 1st Edition1. Cognitive- reason2. Emotional- Behavior3. Homeostatic- Survival D. Efferent neurons- Autonomic v. Somatic 1. Autonomic – involuntary a) sympathetic- action, fight or flight, from the thoracolunbar regionb) parasympathetic- rest and digest, from the craniosacral region2. Somatic- voluntary (control)a) stimulation of lack of muscle stimulation E. Variety of Reflexes and Cannon’s Postulates1. complex organization must have more or less effective self-righting adjustments in order to prevent a check on its functions when stressed2. Reflex typesa) Homeostatic- blood chemistry (plieotropic effects- multiple changes take place with single chemical change), fluid, thermal, metabolic(1) Antagonistic Principle= plieotropic principles (many changes as a result of one minor change)b) Somatic- Body movements and posturec) Tonic- Constant presence, “tone”- posture (1) Adjustment up= increase in tone (2) Adjustment down= decrease in tone d)


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