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EPSY 2130 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 10Lecture 1 (January 6)Introduction to Educational PsychologyWhat are the three themes of educational psychology that will be covered in this class?-Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory-Differentiated Learning-many paths to the same goal-Using research to support teachingLecture 2 (January 8) What are the characteristics of an intentional teacher? Purposeful lesson plans, motivates using creative method, differentiates instruction, uses class time wisely, teacher efficacy, open to criticism, ongoing assessment, professional development, reflectiveWhat is a teacher’s sense of efficacy?A teacher’s belief that he/she can reach even the difficult students to help them learn. It predicts student achievement, grows from real success with students, and experience and training are essential.How do we use research to understand and improve learning?Descriptive studies: survey results, interview responses, video or audio of classroom interactionsCorrelation studies: what is the relationship between 2 variables?Experimental studies: random assignment, cause and effect relatioships, quasi-experimental studentsSingle-Subject Experimental design: examines the impact of interventionMicrogenetic Studies: study cognitive processes in the midst of change-----Other Chapter 1 Concepts: -Efficacy grows in schools when the other staff has high expectations for students, and the teachers receive help from administrators.Lecture 3 (January 13)What are the basics of research?Bias should be acknowledged, sampling procedures should be described, conclusions should be supported, implications should be addressedWhat are the brain basics as it relates to educational psychology?Cerebral Cortex: largest area of the brain, thin sheet of neurons, greatest human accomplishments, most neurons, last part to developLateralization: specialization of the 2 hemispheres---left=language processing, right= spatial-visual ***females have less lateralizationPlasticity: ability of the brain to modify its own structure and function following changes within the body or in the external environment Experience-Expectant: synapses are overproduced in certain parts of the brain during specific developmental periods, awaiting stimulationExperience-Dependent: synaptic connections are formed based on the individual’s experiences, new synapses are formed in response to neural activity in very localized areas of the brain whenindividual isn’t successful in processing informationSensitive periods: when a person is especially ready for or responsive to certain experiencesWhat is the definition of development?Three main principles: people develop at different rates, development is relatively orderly, and development takes place gradually-Heritability estimates for intelligence (twins)What is cognition? And what is a constructivist approach?Cognition: virtually everything we do involves thinking or cognitive functioning-How do kids become able to do all these things?-Why’re some better at some tasks?-Why’re some quicker to develop?Constructivist Approach: children are active in constructing knowledge, they learn many lessons on their own, and they are intrinsically motivated to learnWhat is Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development?Cognitive skills change because people are constantly trying to make sense of the world. It is influenced by maturation, activity, social experience, equilibriumBasic tendencies in thinking: -organization-it’s an ongoing process, we use schemas (mental representations of things in the world)-Adaptation: adjusting to environment, assimilation: use existing schemes to make senseof events in our world, accommodation: change existing schemes to respond to a new situation-Equilibration- act of searching for balanceCentral Properties of Stage Theory: -qualitative change-broad applicability across topics and contexts-brief transitions-invariant sequence4 stages:-Sensorimotor: 0-2 years, imitation, memory and thought development, recognize objectpermanence (still exists even if out of sight), beginning of goal-directed actions-Preoperational: 2-7 years, language acquisition and use, symbolic thinking (playing pretend), logical reasoning, egocentric, lack of understanding of conservation-Concrete Operational: 7-11 years, thinking systematically remains difficult, inferred reality, seriation, transitivity, decentered thought, class inclusion-Formal Operational: 12-adult, abstract thinking, scientific thinking, social multi-layered/complex thinking, hypothetical situations, **not everyone reaches thisLecture 4 (January 15)What are the limitations of Piaget?-Kids don’t always think in ways consistent with his theory, some develop object permanence earlier. It appears to have underestimated kids cognitive abilities. It overlooked role of cultural factors in development What is Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory?Emphasizes role in development of cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society. Children learn culture through these interactions .Scaffolding-social interaction between learner and more knowledgeable person helping3 main influences on cognitive development:-social sources of individual though-cultural tools-zone of proximal development-phase when child can master a task if given appropriate help/supportRole of Language: language is central to sociocultural theory because it is the primary means of information transmission between expert and learner…private speech guides developmentWhat are the limitations of Vygotsky’s Theory?He may have overemphasized the role of social interaction. He died young, so he never fully developed or expanded his work.What are the differences between Vygotsky and Piaget?Piaget thought learning was passive, and that it was the child’s thinking.Vygotsky thought learning was active, and that it is guiding teachersLecture 5 (January 20)What is the difference between behaviorism and cognitive theories?Behaviorism- learning dependent on external events (situational) (if new behavior is learned)Cognitive- internal experience valued and considered more; learning may not show itself on the outside; compares brain to computer, related to constructivism: learners take roleWhat are the two general forms of knowledge?-Domain-specific: information that is useful in a particular situation or that applies mainly to one specific topic-General: information that is useful in many different


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