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Pitt RELGST 1120 - Origins study guide 1

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- Pentateuch: first five books of the Jewish bible-- Thought to be written by Moses but now we know its not because of Documentary Hypothesis: many authors composed - Writings- Prophets - Jewish bible ends - Apocrypha: the books not involved in the old testament (maccabi revolt)- Theme of the entire Hebrew bible: EXILE AND RETURN- only to the people of Israel - This pattern will always take place, no matter what happens to the Jews, gd will always restore them because they’re chosen people - Criteria of Authenticity: Problems in the study of the historical Jesus - Dissimilarity: If the earliest form of a saying or story differs inemphasis from a characteristic teaching or concern both ofcontemporary Judaism and of the early church, and then it may beauthentic. Agreement with either indicates that the source of the sayingmay be not Jesus but the later church or some Judaizing strain within it.- Overall Jesus’ ideas are not unique for his own time - Many different Jewish sects of that time that have thesame ideas- Many wandering teachers like him at that time - Jesus was a first century Jew so talking about this stuff as uniquetakes him out of that context which is not something we want todo Jesus is not dissimilar - Coherence: (correlates with dissimilarity) If material from the earlierstrata of tradition is in agreement with other material already establishedas probably authentic, then it is too probably authentic. - Makes sense in terms of time- Generally accepted - Multiple Attestation: if material appears in a number of differentsources and literary contexts then it may be authentic; not so relevantright now -May demonstrate only the early date of a given tradition and saynothing of its relationship to the historical Jesus. -Implies only that the earliest recoverable level of tradition pointstoward an Aramaic origin. - Linguistic suitability: the material with a claim to authenticity shouldbe susceptible of Aramaic rendering, since Jesus did not teach Greek,the language of the documents.- Aramaic is what they spoke - DISPUTE: If he was a traveling teacher, he may have probablyspoke many languages—Greek - “myth” as understood in the opening chapters of Genesis- Etiology: using creation myths to explain how things became how they are now; explanations for how things are the way they are - Man afraid of snakes, painful childbirth etc. - Polemic: using stories to distinguish themselves from other groups, separate themselves and put themselves above other people/groups - LOT: think they have to repopulate the earth themselves, father and two daughters, and so shows that they started through incest (amarites and amelicites)—putting them down - The call of Abraham/ Abrahamic Covenant: - Abraham gets people/descendants and land and he must give gd faith in the gd of Israel - To show his devotion- Circumcision is the theme - Showing faith through sacrificing his first born son and when he’s about to an angel stops him- “look how our people started, as this ultimate faith figure while LOT is incest” - The story of Moses and the ExodusExodus - New pharaoh doesn’t know story of joseph and the importance of the Hebrews to Egypt- He has the Hebrew midwives kill the male first borns (don’t do it so order army to) and general enslavement - 10 plagues: the god of Israel is more powerful than the god of Egypt and he is now going to restore Israel Passover- Mount Sinai- 10 commandments and 613 mitzvot - The essays on Mt. Sinai and Leviticus Leviticus: Priests Manual - Rules and ritual requirements - Pure vs. Impure or Sacred vs. Profane or Clear vs. Ambiguous - Creation of boundaries, don’t mix, so nothing is ambiguous - “The Mosaic Covenant at Sinai”- Moses is the mediator between god and the people- Israelites must recognize Yahweh alone as their god and mustfollow and dedicate themselves to the rules, rituals etc. of the fivebooks of moses - Gd makes no promises to the people simply the implied idea thathe will protect them - In Deuteronomy it says gd promises peace, prosperity and othermaterial blessings also in genesis there is no witness to mt Sinaibut in Deuteronomy “heaven and earth” witness - Apodictic Law: commandments that are absolute - Case Law: “if such and such is the case, then… must be done” - Moses covenant: gd demands total cooperation and obediencein the human parties; god promises to Abraham and Davidare unconditional - “How to Read the Law Codes of Leviticus”- Aaron: tribe of Levi- His descendants in the temple cult dealt with purity andpollution meaning the daily sacrifices and instructingothers on the rules of contamination and cleansing - Levites: everyday maintenance, hymn-singing and scribalactivity - Not given land when the Israelites went into Canaan - Carried the tabernacle when on the move - Determined if someone was a leper - Israel’s Purity Laws in Leviticus - Contains priestly instructions about maintaining the ritualand ethical purity of the Israelite community - Said its compiled shortly after the Babylonian exile so thepriests were trying to preserve and standardize Israel’sform of worship - “to show that by observing all the requirements set forthby the priests, the Israelites will remain distinct anddifferent from the gentile nations that try to destroy them”- Clean/Unclean- Regulates sacrificial offerings - Priests like boundaries/mutually exclusive categorieswhere it was a sin to violate… if things are ambiguous anddon’t fit into a category they are illegal - Being ritually impure was not a sin, it was a part of life- Moral impurity is a sin, punishment is being cut off fromthe land and only atonement can alleviate - Rituals of Atonement - Being unclean only mattered when entering the temple tosacrifice and that’s what the descriptions of sacrificialofferings are for - Given as a means to restore the correct relationshipto god and/or his sacred place - Social class had no consideration - Yom Kippur: one goat is killed as a sacrifice and one issent away with the nations sins - Holiness Code- Emphasizes god as the source of holiness and basicallythat the Israelites must all live as priests in order to act asa holy nation because the land is holy so people living onit must keep it that way - Sacrifice was no substitute for honorable


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