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UNCW PSY 355 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSY 355 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 7Lecture: 1/14/15What are values? -Values influence your behavior and affect decisions -Decisions about education -Decisions about families and relationships Decisions about when to take action or do something -Values guide and motivate science as well -Even the view that Psychology is a Science is a value -Wilhelm Wundt, for example Psychology has shared values:EmpiricismDeterminismCuriosity Organization Empiricism- Observable events -Hypotheses and theories have to be testable -An empirical question has to be demonstrated -Can be measured Determinism-Every event has a cause or a set of causes -Our job is to find out how those causes acted together to lead to a particular outcome Curiosity -Why did this happen? -How can we change it to make it happen a different way? -Is there more than one way to change it? Organization -Agreed upon organization for collecting data (information) -Agreed upon organization for analyzing data -Agreed upon organization for sharing data and using data shared by others American Psychological Association style -Title Page and authors-Abstract-Introduction -Methods-Results-Discussion References-Figures, tables, charts Shared values in Psychological Science Empiricism Determinism Curiosity Organization Lecture: 1/21/15Psychology as a science: GOALS(Not in book)Values determine the goals of psychologyThere are 4 major goals of Psychology-Research that we do could be classified under all 41. Descriptiona. Provide an unbiased account of behavior and mental activityb. The heart of what we need to do as scientistsc. Be able to describe what we see/what we are measuring 2. Predictiona. Being able to specify in advance when particular behaviors will occurb. There’s a likelihood that if I see ____ happening, then _____ will happen.c. Example of study... what level of goal? If it’s a predictive study, it would have to be descriptive as well3. Explanationa. Principle behind behaviorb. Ex: The reason someone drinks when anxious is because they are trying to self medicate an unwanted emotionc. To account for causes of behaviors in terms of the bigger picture through formulation (and reformulation) of theories about basic principles and constructs. 4. Controla. Apply these principles to solve problems b. Influencing thoughts and behaviors (ex: increase skills, make life better, relieve suffering, etc.)Lecture: 1/26/15EthicsEthics- "moral philosophy", a major branch of philosophy, encompasses right conduct and good life. It is significantly broader than the common conception of analyzing right and wrong. A central aspect of ethics is "the good life", the life worth living or life that is satisfying, which is held by many philosophers to be more important than moral conduct. The major problem is thediscovery of the summum bonum, the greatest good. The right act can be identified as the one causing the greatest good and the immoral act as the one impeding it. From Wikipedia 01/16/08 - American Psychological Association Ethical standards for the conduct of research (2002) - Internal Review Board IRB - http://www.uncw.edu/ors/documents/HowToRegisterforCITItraining.pdf - Ethics training - Risk: Probability of harm and likely severity of the harm - Balance out with the Risk of NOT doing the research Risk/benefit ratio -Ethics: Moral philosophy-Trying to do greatest good for everyoneStandards for research-Outline what you ought to be doing as a researcher-Institutional review board (IRB)- screens any research protocol before you do it-Use principles of ethical standards-Tell you whether you can or cannot do something-Otherwise people are making decisions on their own about what is/isn’t ethical• **Minimal risk (e.g. anonymous questionnaire) • More than minimal risk (e.g. ingestion of psychoactive substance) • Examples of other risks– Confidentiality violation– Pain or possible physical/mental harm • Coercion • Deception– Using Confederates– Justifiable?– Alternative?– Would reasonable person participate? • Debriefing Lecture: 1/28/15Psychology as a Science: EthicsMinimal risk- ex: an anonymous questionnaireMore than minimal risk- ex: ingesting psychoactive substance-If more, must appear before board to get approvalInformed Consent- Not necessary with things like anonymous survey(still must get approval)-Two exceptions: Naturalistic Observation and Anonymous surveys-Anonymous surveys- If conducting these studies, IRB still must look at statement and make sure you have included everything you need to-Naturalistic Observation studies are when researchers go out into community and observe others behaviorParticipants need to know -ALL of the risks involved-That they have the opportunity to withdraw without any penalty (uncomfortable, want to quit, etc.)-Confidentiality procedures- explain how you’re going to keep the data confidential-Competence to consent- standards set by state (you don’t have competence if participant is underage)This is because they have to make an informed decisionIRB makes decisions whether deception studies are approved (use of confederates, is it justifiable, is there an alternative, etc.)-With deception, you must fully and completely debrief the participant after the study is completeWhen to break confidentiality-When there is clear and immediate danger present-Ex: suicide, homicide, harming self or others, child abuseNonhuman research subjects-Animals must receive proper care and be acquired lawfully-Must have permission from the IACUC (institutional animal care and use committee) -Termination must be done humanely, no painNonhuman research subjects-Animal must be cared for properly-Animal must be acquired lawfully -Risk/Benefit ratio must be evaluated -Pain or deprivation absolutely necessary? -Termination -Boards: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee IACUC Data Presentation and Analysis (Statistics) • Data Falsification: Career ender • Misrepresentation– Types of graphs (pg 28 of text)– Bar graph, line graph, pie graph– Graphs in 3-D: necessary or confusing? – Manipulation of scale size (pg 29 of text) PublicationPlagiarism- another career-ender Lecture: 1/30/15-Logical processes2 major ways in Psychology 1. Inductiona. How you’re taught as a child to observe reasonb. Observation, associating with other things, correlationsc. Patternsd. Examples: Naturalistic observation, surveys, qualitative studies (focus groups)e. Strengths Helps


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