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UT ANT 326L - After the Fall of Rome

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After the Fall of Rome800 AD MapMost of Iberia is still controlled by moorsBritish Isles are carved into kingdomsGermany is divided into kingdomsCharlemagne pulled together a lot of France and northern Italy under his controlByzantine InfluenceIdeology of EuropeBuffered western Europe from the Islamic expansionSupplied Europe with goods and generated demandCalled for the Crusades and thus pulled Western Europe into the world systemOne scholar had pulled together all of these ideas about medicine and made a series of volumes about it which made its way into EuropeRevolutionized medicine in the westAffected the renaissanceBroke the body down into various functional componentsA lot of theological discussions were going on in Baghdad and the Islamic worldDealing with Greek classics like Aristotle and PlatoGreeks understood world in a very different way than Christian and MuslimsChristians and Muslims were monotheistic that saw God as a very powerful figure in the present worldGreek philosophy thought of a creator that set the machinery in motion but after that didn’t have a lot to do with how things preceded and didn’t go with human affairsMuslim and Christian scholars were trying to accommodate both views of the worldReconquistaDirect interaction between Christians and the Islamic worldFour important institutionsProviding for political cooperation and intellectual continuity for 1000 yearsVilla systemFeudal manorChurch, manor house, small village, political authorityWalls surrounding the cityAll the characteristics of a complex societyPeople who weren’t dependent on doing their own agriculture emergedRoman Catholic churchSuccessfully survived the fall of the Roman empireArmed campSpread over most of Europe so many tribes were convertedBishop of Rome managed to consolidate power so he was the most powerful out of all the bishops so he became the popeThe PapacyPope and what impact that had on EuropeGregory ISet the aim of what the papacy would becomeTurned Germanic rulers, who were conquerors of Rome, to people with catholic identitiesEstablish the bishop of Rome as the most powerfulInvented the papacyPope was able to be an intermediary between various fighting groups and pull people togetherAttempted to limit the amount of fighting that would go onThe Monastic OrdersAfter 500 AD arose all these orders and had a real impact on preserving knowledge and literacy of EuropeHelped to preserve the influence of ChristianityBenedict of Mercia found thisWrote a book that was a template for how to organize a monasteryCentered around a church, has plots of land, fields, dorms, graveyardPreserved learningTook scripture and copied it over and over againKept language of Latin aliveCopied and preserved many manuscripts so it also kept Greek aliveCambridge and Oxford emerged out of monastic schoolsAccumulated a lot of wealth and many times richer than the lords around them1500s became a point of contention, Henry 8th was taking over monasteriesTrends in EuropeDevelopments after 1000 AD created an increasingly outward-focused world viewIncreasing populationSeeing large cities growHundreds of thousands of peoplePressure to look for other places to goGrowing political integrationBecoming more stableInstead of small kingdoms at each other’s throatsThey became larger and resembled modern nation statesGrowth of the eliteEcclesiastical, military, politicalMinor nobility, bureaucrats, churchExpansion beyond the fringes of EuropeLots of stuff is coming from middle eastPolish and Russian planesKiev and Moscow becoming larger citiesGrowing sphere of tradeNeed new places to trade withStarts silk roadEuropean UrbanismBy 1300 AD, cities had replaced manorial estates as a dominant feature of the landscapeMilan--200,000 peopleVenice, Genoa, Florence over 100,000 peopleParis over 80,000 peopleLondon over 50,000 peopleGrowth of TradeIncreasing ranks of the nobilityChurch, military, and stateGrowing wealth helped generate a demand for luxury goodsGoods from the Near eastExotic goods from the fast eastSilk, spices, teaHints of the wider worldThe crusades and political events in the near east made it possible for merchants to go to the east directlyMarco PoloKnown for his account of his travelsRecorded while in prison in GenoaWith many other Europeans traveled to the court of Kublai Khan and returned to VeniceMongolian EmpireTraveled to Beijing and describes city with good accuracy and detail and admirationOther less reliable accountsSir John Mandeville’s travelsPrester JohnImmediate causes of the expansionFall of ConstantinopleCaptured by Ottoman Turks in 1453Effectively ending Italian merchants’ special trading relationship to the eastMaking it more and more difficult to access silk roadClosing of eastern routesEurope had had growing demands for goods for centuries, but the supply buildingDemand building and supply disappearingEuropean Merchants’ responseDiversifyFamilies tried other avenues for tradingNorth AtlanticAfrican coastEventually western route across the AtlanticMartin Behaim’s 1492 GlobeMost up to date map there is of the known world in 1492Shows much better understanding of India, Japan, MadagascarVague islandsANT 326L 1st Edition Lecture 6 After the Fall of Rome 800 AD Map- Most of Iberia is still controlled by moors - British Isles are carved into kingdoms- Germany is divided into kingdoms- Charlemagne pulled together a lot of France and northern Italy under his control Byzantine Influence- Ideology of Europe- Buffered western Europe from the Islamic expansion- Supplied Europe with goods and generated demand- Called for the Crusades and thus pulled Western Europe into the world system One scholar had pulled together all of these ideas about medicine and made a series of volumes about it which made its way into Europe- Revolutionized medicine in the west- Affected the renaissance- Broke the body down into various functional components A lot of theological discussions were going on in Baghdad and the Islamic world- Dealing with Greek classics like Aristotle and Plato- Greeks understood world in a very different way than Christian and Muslims- Christians and Muslims were monotheistic that saw God as a very powerful figure in the present world- Greek philosophy thought of a creator that set the machinery in motion but after that didn’t have a lot to do with how things preceded and didn’t go with human affairs- Muslim and Christian scholars were trying to accommodate both


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