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UW-Milwaukee CHEM 100 - States of Matter

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CHEM 100 1st Edition Lecture 2States of MatterMatter can come a physical state, the three most familiar are: solid, liquid, and gas. -The properties of each include:Solid: Fixed shape, its own volume, no volume change under pressure, particles are fixed in place in a regular (crystalline) arrayLiquid: Shape of container (may or may not fill it), its own volume, slight volume change under pressure, particles are randomly arranged and free to move about until they bump into one anotherGas: fills the shape of the container, has the same volume of the container, has large change under pressure, particles are widely separated and move independently of one another.-Atoms of gas are spread, there is a lot of extra space (which is why it is easy to compress), liquid and solid atoms are touching (which is why they are hard to compress)Symbols Used in Chemistry-Physical States: Indication of state found in parenthesis by elemental symbol, or chemical formula. Ex:-Elemental: shorthand of elements-Chemical formulas: composition of compundPhysical Properties-Physical properties: are observable characteristics, that require no change to the substances chemical composoition.-Ex: Qualitative: color, odor, taste, hardness, magnitism-Quantitavtive: mass, volume, density, temperatureUnits and conversions-Sceintists use the metric system to define base units of measure-Length: Meter (m)-Time: Second (s)-Temperature: Kelvin (k)-Number of parrticles: Mol (mol)-Mass: Kilogram (k)Mass-Measures the quantity of matterThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.-Essentially the same physical quantity as weight, except mass is not bound by gravity.-Examples of what mass is measure in.-The mass increases from the bottom to the top of the table.Volume-Amount of space a substance occupies-Length * Width * Height- Most common unit is cm^3-Volumes of liquids are usually measured by milliliters (mL) – 1Ml=1cm^3Significant Figures (Sig Fig’s)-Digits of a number that have significance-All non-zero digits (435g)-A zero that falls between two digits (40.5g)-Zero’s to the right of decimals (5.00g)-Decimal points can add significant figures (400g vs. 400.3g)-Zero’s to the rightmost zero (trailing zeros) a decimal point is needed (9876.0000g)-Of a number is greater than one, the zeros to the right of the last nonzero digit may or may not be significantDensity-Ratio of mass to volume-Units are g/mL (solids and liquids) g/L (gases)-The highest point liquid will sink to bottom-Density = mass/volumeTemperature-How hot or cold relative to standard-Measured with thermometer-Measured in degrees Celsius (°C) and Kelvins


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