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UW-Milwaukee CRMJST 275 - Laws, Justice, Models and Precedent

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CRM JST 275 1st Edition Lecture 2I. Police in a Democracya. Democracy: consensus, freedom, participation, equalityb. Policing: regulation: regulation, restriction and most importantly authorityi. “Democracy is always hard on the police”II. Democratic policinga. Executive branch=the enforcement of lawsb. Legislative branch=law creation; appropriating fundingc. Judicial branch=processing of offenders; interpretation of lawsd. Political decision-making includes both pluralistic and elitist perspectivesi. pluralistic perspective: police are a benign institution that helps implement laws that result from political contestsii. elitist perspective: police exist to protect the powerful and repress everyone elsee. the exercise of power, however, is based on the rule of lawIII. Democracy and the Rule of Lawa. Civil laws: concerned with relationships between individualsb. Criminal laws: concerned with the relationship between the individual and government c. Substantive law: identify behavior, either required or prohibitedd. Procedural law: govern how the police enforce the substantive lawse. Case law: written rulings of appellate courtsIV. Constitutional Amendmentsa. 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th, and 14th are important to the police processb. Right to a speedy trial (in WI): i. Aim for less than 90 daysii. Less than 9 months for misdemeanorsiii. 9-12 months for feloniesV. Policing, Terrorism, and Homeland Securitya. Impact of 9/11/2001b. Priorities: counterterrorism and homeland security USA Patriot Acti. Increased collaboration between agencies across different levelsii. Federal agencies pushed the forefront of law enforcementThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.VI. Organizational Structurea. ~18,000 public police agencies in the U.S.i. There are an average of 360 agencies per stateb. Over 60 federal agencies with enforcement or investigative powersc. Municipal police: most common type of agencyd. 837,000 sworn law enforcement officers nationwidei. ~74% of these are employed by localVII. Other Law Enforcement Agenciesa. Task forcesb. Contract law enforcementc. Special jurisdiction policed. Regional policee. Consolidated agenciesf. Public safety agenciesg. Tribal policeVIII. Local Policea. Employs the most employeesb. Cost the most amount of moneyc. Deal mostly with reported crimed. Have a closer relationship with the citizensIX. Federal Policea. Mainly investigativeX. Police Role and Purposea. Expectations (and how do these affect policing?):i. Individualii. Communityiii. Organizationaliv. LegalXI. Politicsa. Community-Policing model: responsive without preferential treatmentb. Legalistic or Reform/Professional model: structural/bureaucratic relationshipc. Political model-preferential treatment, discriminationXII. Crime Fighting vs. Social Servicea. Debate surrounding the question of whether the police should fight crime or provide social servicesi. Answer to this impacts policing in a variety of important ways (how do views officers with a crime fighter mentality differ from those with social service mentality?)ii. Importantly, officers don’t fall in just one of the categoriesXIII. Proactive vs. Reactivea. Proactive: emphasizes police-initiated activitiesb. Reactive: emphasizes responses to call for assistancec. Which is more compatible with a democracy?XIV. Police Activity and Workloada. Four categories for workload (first two make up 40-50% of police workload, while the latter two make up 50-60% of police workload):i. Crime Controlii. Law Enforcementiii. Order Maintenanceiv.


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