New version page

TAMU BIOL 112 - Chapter 24 The Origin of Species

This preview shows page 1 out of 3 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 3 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Chapter 24: Origin of Species- Speciation-when 1 species splits into 2 or more specieso Forms a conceptual bridge between microevolution and macroevolution Microevoltuion- changes over time in allele frequencies in a population Macroevolution- broad pattern of evolution above the species level- Evolution of new groups of species (ex: mammals)Biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolationo Biological species concept- defines a species as a group of populations with individuals who can interbreed and produce fertile offspring that don’t produce viable fertile offspring with members of other such groups Gene flow holds the group togethero Reproductive isolation-existence of biological factors (barriers) that impede members of 2 species from interbreeding and producing viable fertile offspring These barriers prevent hybridso Hybrid- offspring from interspecific mating- Barriers to more closely related specieso Prezygotic barriers- (before the zygote) block fertilization from even occurring Impeding numbers of different species from trying to mate Preventing mating from being successfully completed Hindering fertilization Habitat isolation- same area different habitats so they might not ever come in contact with each other Temporal isolation- species might breed during difference times (days seasons or years) Behavior isolation- courtship rituals (mate recognition- way to ID potential mates of the same species) Mechanical isolation- mating is attempted but morphological differences prevent successful completion (key doesn’t fit the lock) Gametic isolation- sperm may not be able to fertilize eggs of other species- Might not survive reproductive tract- Biochemical mechanisms prevent penetration at the membraneo Postzygotic barriers-after the fertilization Developmental errors reduce survival among hybrid embryos Problems after birth- infertile/deceased survival long enough to reproduce Reduced hybrid viability- genes of parents interact in ways that impair hybrids’ development or survival in its development Reduced hybrid fertility- if chromosomes of parents differ in number or structure meiosis in hybrids might make abnormal gametes (genes cannot flowbetween parent species) Hybrid breakdown- some of the 1st generation hybrids are fertile but if they interbreed or breed with parent species the next generation is feebleLimitation of the biological Species concept- No way to look at reproductive isolation of fossils- Doesn’t apply to asexual organisms (prokaryotes)- Species are designated by isolationo Some species are morphologically and ecologically distinct yet gene flow occurs between them Grolar bears- Biological species concept overemphasized gene flow and downplays natural selectionOther Definitions of Species- Morphological species concept-species classified by body shape and other structural featureso Applicable to sexual and asexual organismso Usable without gene flow informationo However- subjective (researchers may disagree on which structural features distinguish a species)- Ecological species concept-species viewed in terms of its ecological nicheo Niche- sum of how members of a species interact with the nonliving and living parts of their environmento Applies to sexual and asexual organismso Emphasizes the role of disruptive natural selection as organisms adapt to different environmental conditions- Phylogenetic species concept- species is the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor (1 branch on the tree of life)Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation- Allopatric speciation-gene flow is interrupted when a population is divided into geographically isolated sub populationso Process: separate gene pools, different mutations, natural selection and genetic drift alter allele frequencieso Areas isolated by geographical barriers often have more species (islands)- Sympatric speciation-speciation occurs in populations that live in the same geographic areao Caused by :o Polyploidy- extra sets of chromosomes that come from accidents during cell division 80% of plant species today Autopolyploidy- individual that has more than 2 chromosome sets that are all derived from a single species - Reproductively isolated from original population- Could self pollinate or mate with other tetraploids Allopolyploidy- when hybrids can propagate asexually and through reproduction with other hybrids- new specieso Habitat differentiation Genetic factors allow a sub population to exploit a habitat/resource not used byparent population- Apple/maggot fly- apple trees vs hawthorn planto Prezygotic restriction- temporal because apple flowers at a different timeo Post zygotic- alleles that are beneficial on one plant are deleterious on the othero Sexual selection Cichlids Subgroups adapted to different food sources Most differ in color of malesHybrid Zone Reveal factors that Cause Reproductive Isolation- Hybrid zone-region in which 2 species meet and mate- Patterns in hybrid zoneso Rarely serve as ways to get alleles from one population to another because hybrids have lowered strength/reproductiono Outside the hybrid zone other obstacles to gene flow may be provided by natural selection in the different environments in which the parent species live- Over time 3 possible outcomeso Reinforcement- strengthening reproductive barriers Natural selection strengthens prezygotic barriers to reproductiono Fusion-weakening reproductive barriers Barriers are not strong Gene pools might become more and more alike Fuse into 1 specieso Stability- continued formation of hybrid individuals Hybrids continue to be produced- Sometimes occurs when hybrids survive/reproduce better than parent species Sometimes when hybrids are selected against- When parent species continue to migrate into the hybrid zoneSpeciation can occur rapidly or slowly and can come from changes in many or fewgenes- Timing of speciationo Fossil record gives morphological data static equilibria- periods of apparent stasis punctuated by sudden change Might be because layers of sediment build up slowlyo Speciation rates Punctuated pattern indicates speciation is rapid Varies Organisms have no “speciation clock”- Gradualism- divergence is slow- Punctuationalism- divergence is fasto Learned from snail species in an area where a lake would go through dry seasons where populations would be


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Chapter 24 The Origin of Species and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Chapter 24 The Origin of Species and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?