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UNT BIOL 1112 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIOL 1112 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 5Lecture 1 (January 20)Scientific MethodWhat is Biology? What is the scientific process?- Biology is a branch of knowledge that deals with living things, organisms and vital processes- Ignaz Simmelweis was the first man to figure out that we needed to wash our hands to prevent the spread of germs- The Scientific Method1. The 4 steps are: observation, hypothesis(statement), prediction, experimentation2. A hypothesis must be testable and potentially falsifiable3. A hypothesis is rejected when it fails a logical test is rejected. However, it passes the test, then it is supported. A hypothesis cannot be proven.- Terms to Know:1. Independent Variables 2. Dependent Variables 3. Correlation4. Cause and effect 5. Scientific Theories 6. Pseudoscience 7. Quackery Lecture 2 (January 22) Organization of Life, Building Blocks of LifeWhat is life and what is it made of?- Organization of Life1. Carolus Linnaeus is the man responsible for Modern Taxonomy, which is the system of naming and categorizing. He published “Systema Naturae” in 17352. The Linnaean classification system is as follows: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class Order, Family, Genus Species3. There are 3 Domains and 6 Kingdoms, and humans belong to the Eukarya Domain, Homo Sapiens4. The three domains area) Bacteria which have no organized organellesb) Archaea which are biochemically different from bacteria and they give off methanec) Eukarya which have an organized nucleus5. The six kingdoms area) Prokaryotes (no organized nucleus)1. Archaebacterial2. Eubacteria b) Eukaryotes (have an organized nucleus)1. Protista2. Fungi3. Plantae4. Animalia - Building Blocks of Life1. There are four main elements all living organism are made of they are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen2. The four main macromolecules are carbohydrates (made of sugars), proteins(made of amino acids), lipids(fats), nucleic acids(DNA, RNA)- Terms to know1. Diversity2. Common ancestors3. Autotroph4. Heterotroph5. Atoms6. Elements7. Nucleus8. Molecule9. Enzymes10. Hormones11. Disaccharide vs. monosaccharide12. Hydrophilic & hydrophobicLecture 3 (January 27)Cell Structure and FunctionWhat makes up a cell and how does it work?- Robert Hook fist observed dead cells in 1665 when he observed thin slice of cork.- Cells are the most basic unit of life. - Cell Theory was proposed in 1839. It says that;1. All living things are composed of one or more cells2. Cells are organism’s basic unit of structure and function3. Cells come from existing cells- There are two types of cells, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. Prokaryotes don’t have organized nuclei or membrane bound organelles. Eukaryotes contain a nucleus a membrane bound organelles.- Organelles are a cell component that perform specific functions in the cell.1. Nucleus: The center of the cell, it is the storage center of cell’s DNA and manages cell function.2. Cytosol: Located in the cell membrane of Eukaryotic cells, it contains salts, minerals, and organizes molecules3. Cell Membrane: Surrounding the cell and made of a phospholipid bi-layer, it is the barrier that cells pass through in and out of the cell. It is semipermeable meaning that not everything can pass through it.4. Cytoskeleton: The shaper of the cell5. Ribosomes: 6. Endoplasmic Reticulum a) Located near the nucleus. It’s the molecules’ pathwayb) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Involved in protein synthesis, has ribosome attached to itc) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: involved in lipid synthesis and has noribosomes7. Golgi apparatus: Located near the endoplasmic reticulum, it receives proteinsfrom the rough endoplasmic reticulum and distributes them to other organelles or out of the cell.8. Mitochondria: Located above the nucleus, the mitochondria provides energy for the cell using oxygen. It converts energy stored in food into usable energy for work, cellular respiration9. Lysosomes: Located near the mitochondria, lysosomes digest waste materialsand worn out organelles. It breaks down food particles, invading objects or worn out cell parts10. Cilia and Flagella: Hair like structures that aid in cell movement11. Vacuoles: organelles used for storage. Temporary storage of waste, nutrients, and water12. Chloroplasts: sites of photosynthesis in plant cells13. Cell wall: the outside boundary of a plant cell that provides structure and support- Plant Cell vs. Animal Cell: Plant and animal cells are similar except for the fact that1. Plants cells have chloroplasts2. Plants cells have cell walls3. Plant cells have larger vacuolesLecture 4 (January 29)Nutrients and Membrane TransportWhat are nutrients and how do they get around?- Nutrients1. Macronutrients are substances in foods that provide structural materials or energy. The four main ones are water, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. 2. A simple carbohydrate is composed of one or two sugars, while a complex carbohydrate has chains of sugars linked together3. Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fata) Saturated fats are fatty carbons are bound to as much hydrogen as possible, lack double bonds, solid at room temperatureb) Unsaturated fats are not bound to as much hydrogen as possible, contain double bonds which create kinks in the tail, liquid at room temperature4. Micronutrients are nutrients needed in small quantities. The two main ones we needare vitamins and minerals. Vitamins are vital for cell function, help with absorption, and protect against cancer and slow aging. Mineral must be supplied through food and are essential for cell function5. Fat soluble vitamins are stored in fat and water soluble vitamins are not stored in thebody - Cell Membrane Transport1. The Plasma Membrane is the barrier surrounding the cell and it is semipermeable, it decides who get through and who doesn’t. Factors such as size can determine this.2. There are two types of transporta) Active transport requires energyb) Passive transport requires no energy. There are 3 types1. Diffusion is movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low2. Facilitated transport is the movement of hydrophilic and charged molecules across the membrane3. Osmosis is the movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration- Terms to know1. Nutrients2. Macronutrients3. Fiber4. Processed vs. Whole Food5. Complete proteins6. Essential amino acids7. Essential fatty acids8. Hydrogenated fat9. Trans fat10.


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