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UW-Milwaukee PSYCH 325 - Chapter One: How Do We Know? Part One

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PSYCH 325 1st Edition Lecture 2Chapter One: How Do We Know?• Why should you care about research methods?o It's required!• Essential part of your education• Needed for advanced lab courseso Psychologists are scientists• Some more than others• Focus on human behavioro Psychologists need research• Many of us generate it• All of us need to interpret ito Useful skill• Generalize to many areas• Employers need researcho Clinical: problems, neuro: brain, social: other people, behavioral: stimuli-behavioro Human behavior is hard to predict so that's why we need a scientific processo In every area we must know that field well (if you're a neuroscientist you must know how the heart specifically works, etc.)• What is research?o Published study which addresses an empirical questiono Written up in research reports• Formal way to write findings• Follow APA styleo Must be shared with others• Published journals• Reviewed by peers• Must be accepted• Becomes part of "the literature"o PUBLISHED: experts judge readso EMPIRICAL: based on systematic observationo Reviewers tend to be harsh• Goal #1: Learning how to conduct researcho Learn how to…• Turn an idea into a study• Turn study results into a papero Two major types of research• Basic research: basic principlesThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute. Reasons why Why does operant conditioning occur? (basic research) Neuro, brain cells, sadness, anger• Applied research: help others Solutions More clinical, want to help people with depression Helping people become bettero Two major types of techniques• Correlational Measure two variables Are they related? GPA and ACT score, wealth and happiness• Experimental Manipulate a variable We determine the level Pain rating and amount of medication• MUST UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE• Goal #2: Learning how to evaluate researcho How to be a research consumer• Always exposed to research• Need to evaluate its quality• Develop critical thinking skills• Must be able to ask the right questionso What can go wrong in research?• Other explanations• Poor experimental manipulation• Poor measurement • Our way of understanding behavioro Experimental psychology• Scientific study of human behavior• Emphasize scientific techniqueso History• Developed in Germany• Mid to late 1800s• Sensory researcho Experimental psychology cannons• General principles of science• Basic assumptions of researchers• Canon #1: Determinismo Chaos does not rule the universe• Universe has order• Things happen for meaningful reasonso People need to find causes• Unpredictable world is unpleasant• Not always good at it!o Basis of theory development• Explanation of a causal relationship• Often abstract terms• Needs empirical (observable) support• Useless without


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