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U of A SOCI 2013 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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SOCI 2013 1st EditionExam # 2 Study Guide Lectures: 5-9Lecture 5 (January 26)What is culture?Culture is a total way of “BE-ING” (most basic action verb?) – knowledge, language, values, customs, material objects, passed on person-to-person and generation to generation.Why is culture important?Culture is important because humans need culture to survive, society needs culture to survive (stability – certainty), and society needs culture to survive because we need hat predictability and stability to survive.What is material culture?Material culture is physical creation. Anything that we can make, use, or share. Example is technology.What is non-material culture?Non-material culture is abstract and intangible. Examples are language, beliefs, values, and rules.How many cultural universals are there?There are over 70 cultural universals.What are some social institutions?Some social institutions are family, economy, political system, education, and religion.What is a symbol?A symbol is anything that represents anything else.What is language?Language is symbols that successfully communicate ideas.What are values?Values are criteria for evaluation of good or bad.What kinds of norms are there?There are formal, folways, mores, and taboos.Lecture 6 (January 28)What is technology?It is knowledge and transforms materials for use.What is generally?Generally is knowledge that is “specialized”.What is cultural lag?Cultural lag is a gap between technology app and norms or values. Example is cell phone. What are subcultures?Subcultures are culture set a parts that have a consensus on values.What are countercultures?Countercultures reject dominant culture values.What is ethnocentrism?Ethnocentrism is when someone views other cultures by their own culture values.What is cultural relativism?Cultural relativism is when someone views others by the others’ standards.Lecture 7 (January 30)What is high culture?High culture reflects the culture of elite.What is popular culture?Popular culture reflects culture of masses.What is cultural capital?Cultural capital affects to access to social classes.What is functionalism?Functionalism is the theory that all aspects of a society serve a function and are necessary for the survival of that society.What is conflict?Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology that emphasize the social, political, or material inequality of a social group, that critique the broad socio-political system, or that otherwise detract from structural functionalism and ideological conservativism.What is symbolic interaction?Symbolic interaction is interaction between people and how symbolic meaning occurs.Lecture 8 (February 2, 2015)Who are Early Thinkers?Spencer- Evolutionary perspectiveDurkheim- Egoistic – isolated, all social groups- Altruistic – excessively integrated- Anomic – lack of social regulation- Fatalistic – excessive integratedWhat were differing views?Marx - History is a continual conflict- Class conflict; owners / workers- Alienation (Dilbert Cartoons?)- Capitalism causes crimeWeber- Economics and ideas matter- Sociology should be “value free”- Bureaucracies are soul crushing and maintain power(ful)Simmel- Early social networking theorist- Dyad – mutual intersto Principle of least interest – the person with least interest has the most power- Triad – principle of least interest, power (attribute of structure)o Structural power (alternatives) the person least interested has two options.What is functionalism?Assumes that society is orderly/stable. Assumes overall “consensus”. Manifest (intended) and Latent (unintended) functions. (Macro Theory)What is Conflict Theory?Groups that are in continuous power struggle for the control of scarce resources. (Macro Theory)What is Symbolic Interaction?Society is the sum interactions between individual and groups. (Micro Theory)What is the Sociological Research Process?Systematic (orderly, organized), continuous (never “prove”), quantitative (objective, statistics), qualitative (subjective, themes)What are some research methods?Survey research (random sampling), secondary analysis of existing data, Field work (participant/observation) [ex: when Rebecca Nathan went back to college to conduct a study], experiments (control/exposure)What are some ethical issues in sociological research?Subjects need to give informed consent, conflicts of interest, full disclosure of resultsLecture 9 (February 4, 2015)What are some agents of society?Some agents of society are family, school, peers, and mass-media.How does family affect socialization?Family affects socialization because our society seems to be very pro-family.How does school affect socialization?School affects socialization because small schools can be more homogenous and larger schools are more diverse.How do peers affect socialization?People are more attracted to peers that are similar to their age, sex, race, and preferences.How does mass-media affect socialization?Internet, TV/Cable, and cell-phones all affect socialization.What is the anticipatory socialization order?Childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late


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