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UA CH 118 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Chem 118 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 9Chapter 11- Gases and Liquids assume shape of their container- Solids and liquids are virtually incompressible- Intermolecular Forceso Ion-Dipoleo Dipole-Dipoleo Van der Waals forces Induced dipole-dipole Induced dipole-induced dipole- Polarizability – ease with which charge distribution can be distorted by external forces.o Larger molecules tend to have higher polarizabilityo Greater polarizability means greater London dispersion forces- Hydrogen Bonding – H atom in a polar bond with an unshared e- pair on a nearby atom with a partial negative charge (usually F, O, or N)- Properties of Liquidso Viscosity – higher viscosity means harder to flow through a small tube.o Surface Tension – energy required to increase surface area of a liquid by a unit amount.o Cohesive Forces – bind molecules togethero Adhesive Forces – binding a substance to a surface- Change of Stateo Heat of Fusiono Heat of Vaporizationo Vapor Pressure – pressure of gas formed from liquid or solid in dynamic equilibrium with a gas.- Phase Diagramo Triple Point – all three phases existo Critical Temp – highest temp a substance can be a liquido Critical Pressure – pressure required to bring liquification at Critical TempChapter 12- Solidso Crystalline – atoms, ions, or molecules ordered in a well-defined arrangemento Amorphous – no orderly structure- Cubic Unit Cellso Simple Cube – 1 moleculeo Body Centered Cube – 2 moleculeso Face Centered Cube – 3 molecules- X-Ray Diffractiono Braggs Law- Crystal Defectso Missing particleso Wrong particles/impuritiesChapter 13- Solutionso Homogeneous mixtures- Concentrationo Ppm – parts per million – 1g per 10^6g – 1 mg per 1Lo Mole Fraction (Mol component)/(total mol of all components)o Molality (moles solute)/(kg of solvent)- Dissolutiono Solute-Solute – endothermico Solvent-Solvent – endothermico Solvent-Solute – exothermic- Saturated Solutions and Solubilityo Saturated – solution with dynamic equilibrium with undissolved soluteo Solubility – amount of solute needed to form a saturated solution in a given amount of solvento Supersaturated – under certain conditions, a solvent can hold more solute than needed for a saturated solution. Delicate equilibrium.o Solubility Factors Like dissolves likeo Miscible – when substances can mix in any proportion- Henry’s Lawo Cg = kPg- Colligative Propertieso Depend on amount of solute but not type of soluteo Lowering Vapor Pressure Raoult’s Lawo Boiling Point Elevationo Freezing Point Depression- Osmotic Pressureo Pressure required to stop


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