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LINGUIS 100 1st Edition Lecture 4ReviewDifference between consonants and vowels is one obstructs airflow and one does notconsonants- do not obstruct airflow Can completely stop airflowCan send airflow around the sides of tongue→ Referred to manner of articulation -Where to make articulation is called the place of articulationChart-Go from front of your mouth to back-Anything highlighted on chart (given to you in discussion sections) are voiced soundsClick LanguageThought that they were only spoken in South Africa, but one of students pointed out that there is indeed another part of the world- Papua New Guinea (over 800 languages spoken here)-A lot of islands near it that had clicks- ceremonial language- Would not grow up learning this language, but you would have learned it later in life as you were initiated into their ethnic group -Watched a video of someone trying to describe clicking sounds made in click language without linguistic terms *No Language is Exotic*-What we have come to understand is that this is not true, it is rather just different than what we have been exposed to-Language is complicated but most languages follow same sets of rules-98% of our DNA is sameVowelsThere are four parameters for vowels:-How high is the tongue in your mouth? (height) → Making sounds of ah and e (long e) you can feel a difference in the height of your tongue and your jaw. You have to make these adjustments to make these sounds-Where is the tip of tongue? (Backness)→ making long e sound and o (short o) you are moving tongue back and forth from front to back of mouth-what shape do your lips make-cheeks change in tightnessThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Vowel CategoriesAll languages have at least three vowels (e, u, a)-Arabic only has these three vowels-How many vowels does English have?→ Most people would say that there are 7 vowels, but in fact there are up to 14 Example is the word bag- How to say the long a sound in this word (normally pronounced two different ways)Example: names of Dawn, DonWhich one is she saying exercise?-Can be exactly the same sound depending on which dialect of english one speaksclose, close-mid, open-mid, and open (these are categories of back of the chart for vowels)HeightHow high is the body of the tongue?-High (example is long e- looks like lower case i in IPA)-Mid (looks like lower case a in IPA)-Back Lip RoundingAre the lips rounded?-See words and are not pronounced the way that they look→ Hospital name Froedert- people lost the lip rounding of this word and do not pronounce the oe the way it was originally it was supposed to in German vowel Which vowels are most common?language need at least 3 distinct vowel -languages pick the corners of the mouth and try to fill in the spaces in between in the chart- no language has all vowel sounds Diphthongs-Some languages have two vowel sounds pronounced in one beat (diphthong)→ as you sing, you can only sing one sound at a time-Examples from English:- I /ai/- out /aut/-hate /hɛit/-Canadians- do not say the word out in same way (they have higher placement of tongue when they begin the word) They take short cut but still have diphthongSuprasegmentals-Some languages also have additional features for vowels-Short and long vowel contrasts → German Ire (man from Ireland)Irre (crazy person)kahl (bald)Karl (man’s name)den (the)denn (because)Last Note:Please contact TA’s before you e-mail Dr. Patellio for any


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