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UIUC PSYC 332 - Nazi Experiments

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PSYC 332 1st Edition Lecture 2EthicsOutline of Last Lecture II. Intro to EmpiricismIII. The 4 Ways of KnowingIV. The 4 Canons of ScienceOutline of Current Lecture I. Brief history of unethical studies II. 5 APA Principles of Ethics III. IRB FormsCurrent Lecture- Nazi Experiments:- Hypothermia, malaria, sea water, sterilization- Joseph Mengele – “angel of death”- Conducted experiments on 1500+ sets of twins, less than 200 individuals survived. - Tuskegee Syphilis Study- 1932-1974 investigating the effects of untreated syphilis- Subjects mostly African American- Not told they had syphilis – “bad blood”- Coerced participation? Experiments promised free medical care, free meals, and burial insurance if they participated. - 1947 cure becomes known, but experimenters withhold treatment and knowledge- By the end, only 74 test subjects were still alive.- Out of the original 399 men, 28 died of syphilis, 100 died of related complications, 40 of their wives infected, and 19 children born with congenital syphilis. - Project MK –Ultra- At the height of the Cold War, CIA was involved in top secret experiments in search of mind control drugs.- 1953-1973- Gave LSD to people without knowledge These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- In one case, this led to the death of Frank Olson, army biochemist, in an apparent suicide in an extreme psychotic episode. - Milgram Obedience Studies- “The experiment requires that you continue”- Consequences included psychological distress of causing harm as well as no anonymity.- Stanford Prison Experiment- APA Ethical Principles:1. Respect for Persons/Autonomy2. Beneficence3. Justice4. Trust5. Integrity- Principle 1: Respect for Persons- informed consent: do subjects know what they are getting into and do they know that they don’t have to?-information-comprehension-volunteer freely-terminate anytime-must know about risks of participation-freedom from coercion - Principle 2: BeneficenceDo the benefits outweigh the costs?1. Risks should be reduced to only those considered necessary2. High risks must be justified3. Brutal treatment is never justified4. Vulnerable participants must be protected e.g childrenPain and Suffering1. Sometimes the cots outweigh the potential benefits2. When are the costs worth it?- Principle 3: Justice1. Selection process must be fair2. Benefits of research to those who participate3. Use science for good not evil.Fairness: is it ok to deny treatment to control groups?- Principle 4: Relationship of Trust1. Confidentiality2. Subjects should leave in the same psychological state as when they arrived.3. Debriefing4. Professional ConductThe Post Experimental Interviewe.g “do you have any questions about what the experiment proved/denied?”Belief Perseverance: tendency to hold on to a belief or idea, even when it’s disconfirmed e.g Ross, Lepper and Hubbard: subjects tasked to judge which suicide notes were real or fake.- Principle 5: Scientific Integrity1. Research must have the capacity to foster scientific knowledge.2. Forms of scientific misconduct:- Fabrication: falsification, fabrication, obfuscation, bare assertions- Plagiarism: source plagiarism, ghostwriting, etc. - Ethics in Writing- report data faithfully- give credit where credit is due- do not plagiarize - IRB Boards- Internal Review Boards- Risk/Benefit Analysis- Protection of subject rights e.g consent and debriefingWho (recruitment, how many subjects, compensation)What (manipulation, measures)Where (performance sites)Why (benefits of


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