Exam 1 Study Guide

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CH 220 1st Edition Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 6 Lecture 1 This class will focus on H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I (and sometimes P & S) Atomic Structure - Positively charged nucleus that contains protons and neutrons Atomic Number - Often written as (Z), is the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus. Atoms of a given element always have the same atomic number Atomic Mass - Often written as (A), is the number of protons plus neutrons. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons Orbitals describe where electrons are most likely to be with reference to the nucleus, it is a ‘probable’ area and not a definite one Orbitals further away from the nucleus have the most energy Orbitals are grouped into shells, which can be made up of different types of orbitals, with each orbital being able to be occupied by two electrons Carbon always has four bonds, and adopts a tetrahedron shape so that the bonds have sufficient spacing – the angles between the bonds are approximately 109 degrees Atoms form bonds because the compound that results is more stable than the separate atoms Lecture 2 In neutral atoms the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons Valence electrons are involved in chemical bonding & reactions, as well as achieving a noble gas configuration Organic chemistry focuses on nonmetal-nonmetal bonding, known as covalent bonding. Covalently bonded compounds share electrons to achieve their octet In a covalent bond, the nuclei are attracted to the electron density between atoms, which forms a directional bond Lewis structures – bars represent bonded electrons, dots represent lone pairs



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