Types of Alkyl Groups

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Types of Alkyl Groups

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North Carolina State University
Ch 220 - Introductory Organic Chemistry

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CH 220 1st Edition Lecture 5 Outline of Current Lecture I. Types of alkyl groups II. Cycloalkanes III. Cyclohexane – chair conformation IV. Naming cycloalkanes Current Lecture I. Types of alkyl groups a. Classified by the connection site i. A carbon at the end of a chain is known as a primary alkyl group 1 ii. A carbon in the middle of a chain is known as a secondary alkyl group 2 iii. A carbon with three carbons attached to it is a tertiary alkyl group 3 iv. A carbon with four carbons attached to it is a quaternary alkyl group 4 b. These classifications are not used to name, just to describe the neighbors of the carbon c. When referring to the classification of hydrogen, it takes on the classification of the carbons that they are attached to, for instance if a carbon is attached to three other carbons and one hydrogen, then the hydrogen would be attached to the tertiary carbon and therefore be a tertiary hydrogen II. Cycloalkanes a. Cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons in a ring/circle instead of being in a straight chain i. Cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane ii. Cyclohexane looks like benzene, but is composed of single bonds rather than alternating single-double bonds b. Cycloalkanes are not isomers of alkanes i. Formula for cyclopropane is C3H6 ii. Formula for propane is C3H8 iii. They have very different properties III. Cyclohexane a. Adopts a chair confirmation, with 3 hydrogens pointing straight down and 3 hydrogens pointing straight up (axial hydrogens) and 6 hydrogens spaced around the structure (equatorial hydrogens) These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.

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