UGA GEOL 4220 - Final Exam Study Guide (38 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Study Guide
University of Georgia
Geol 4220 - Hydrogeology
Hydrogeology Documents
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GEOL 4220 Final Exam Study Guide Lecture 1 Climate and Precipitation 1 Wind a Coriolis effect bends the direction of the wind i On the earth the effect tends to deflect moving objects to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern and is important in the formation of cyclonic weather systems b Doldrums air rising from the equator that moves north c Westerlies if you face the west the wind is blowing at you i Not the direction of the wind per say d Winds take form temperature humidity of the land they are passing over 2 Snow a Snow forms to climate as well as winds i Snow can be dry wet etc 3 Storms a Convectional warm air rising cool air falling i Creates thunderstorms b Frontal cold air going over warm air OR warm air going under cold air i Can tell difference by the types of clouds 1 Warm air over cold air creates storms and come quickly resulting in increased precipitation c Orographic masses of air pushed up by wind are forced up the side of mountains i Think sea to mountain storms Moist air on sea side dry air on land side of mountain ii Create rain shadows d Base of mountains have half the rainfall then top of mountains e What is the phenomena where air is lifted i Orographic effect 4 Humidity a There is 100 humidity if the maximum amount of water is held in the atmosphere i In GA humidity is almost always 100 creating dew b As air warms humidity decreases because warm air can hold more water 5 Precipitation a How much do we measure precipitation i Depends on the type of measuring source used Can be measured daily and hourly b What is a storm i A storm forms in response to an extreme difference in air pressure driven by the movement of warm and cold air c How much can it really rain i Extreme rainfall can occur but is often an outlier to the average annual precipitation d What is meant by a 100 year storm i Find max rainfall for each storm on an annual basis Rank the biggest storms based on probability biggest has 1 100 Find the return period by flipping the fraction 100 1 This equals the probability of a 100 year storm ii Water year starts Oct first and ends Sep 30th tend not to have storms that cross that time period 6 Data Sources for Precipitation a All rainfall is measured at a point b Rainguage measures precipitation i Non recording used in older days 1 Collaborated so that areas collecting the rain produces an area of rain that is measured in depth 2 Rainguage is measured at the same time every day 3 Inaccurate data measurement because it is measured only once a day doesn t always rain all day ii Tipping bucket rainguage 1 Every time the bucket is tipped there is a read switch Counts the number of tips over a period of time You work out the rates 2 100 tips in an hour a certain amount of precipitation 3 Once rainfall is recorded you can then measure intensity c How long does it have to not rain in order to call it a new storm i In GA average is 7 hours of no rain for a new storm ii Changes depending on location iii NCDN collets rainfall data internationally daily and hourly 7 Natural conditions and Distribution a Droughts and extreme rain can cause natural fluctuations in a distribution b Noah effect and Joseph effect biblical explanation to statistical hydrology c Different patterns for distribution occur in different parts of the country i East coast regular distribution 1 Florida more convectional storms in the summer ii Pacific coast 1 Opposite of east coast a NW precipitation in form of snow 8 Groundwater only care about one year for this Rather precipitation is over many years Lecture 2 Infiltration and Runoff 1 Infiltration basics a Maximum infiltration rate can occur depending on the soil type b Once the soil is infiltrated water moves down through the unsaturated zone c Initially the soil is a mixture of both water and air d Percolation water moving downward e Water table the divide between the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone f Groundwater is in the saturated zone g Baseflow when the water table is above the earth and flow occurs on land lakes and streams i Decreases with time until the system is filled with water ii Water in a river that comes from groundwater 2 Hydrograph a Measures discharge versus time b Can be subdivided into different components i Has a rising limb a peak a recession limb and baseflow c All hydrographs are watershed specific create different proportions i Flashy watershed hydrograph rises and falls quickly ii Broad watersheds have more subsurface flow iii Hydrograph examples 1 Total stream flow 2 Hortonian Overland Flow water occurring over a drainage basin when the rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration rate a Once there is saturation there is no more storage b Can also be illustrated with the infiltration capacity curve 3 Baseflow water in a river that comes from groundwater a Should not be confused with groundwater 4 Direct Precipitation water falling directly on the stream 5 Interflow component of runoff where water flows at or near the surface without becoming part of the groundwater system 3 Hydraulic Conductivity a Rate at which water can flow 4 Stream Types a Gaining Effluent i Typical of humid regions where groundwater recharges streams ii All streams east of the Mississippi b Losing Influent i Typical of arid regions where streams recharge groundwater c Perennial streams i A stream that flows year round ii Represented by solid blue lines on a map d Intermittent streams i Seasonal ii Flow only in the winter and early spring iii Once the water table drops they stop flowing iv Water table drop b c of ET plants need water to grow in spring and summer 1 ET Evapotranspiration a An important component of the hydrologic cycle v Represented by dotted blue line on a map e Ephemeral streams i Flow only during a storm ii Never interacts with groundwater iii Does not occur on a map but can tell its ephemeral by contour lines 5 Streamflow measurements a Water quality values change with streamflow i If you are measuring water chemistry in a stream always measure streamflow as well b To compare values you must know what discharge is doing as well c Volume per unit time used to measure streamflow d Types of measurement graphs i Average daily flow take data throughout the day and average it 1 Log average daily flow more normally distributed 2 More interested in low flows than high flows creates problems with groundwater as well as surface water 3 Streamflow is different every day for any given stream ii

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