Mizzou HIST 1100 - Mid Term Study Guide (5 pages)

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Mid Term Study Guide



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Mid Term Study Guide

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Pages:
5
School:
University of Missouri
Course:
Hist 1100 - Survey of American History to 1865
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I Essay1 Causes of American Revolution The war was triggered by an event in April 1775 British soldiers intending to capture a colonial arms depot at Concord Massachusetts clashed with colonial militiamen Someone no one knows exactly who fired a shot and eight years of fighting began While political separation from England may not have been the majority of colonists original goal independence and the creation of a new nation the United States was the ultimate result a No one event can be pointed to as the actual cause of the revolution the war began as a disagreement over the way in which Great Britain treated the colonies versus the way the colonies felt they should be treated b Colonial an emerging middle class with a rallying cry of unalienable rights to life liberty and property c Economical d Government Representation Greatly affected by John Locke s philosopher of the American Revolution idea of ones natural rights to life liberty and property e Transformation during 1775 f Changes in imperial policy after French and Indian War July 1776 The British victory in the French and Indian War had a great impact on the British Empire Firstly it meant a great expansion of British territorial claims in the New World But the cost of the war had greatly enlarged Britain s debt Moreover the war generated substantial resentment towards the colonists among English leaders who were not satisfied with the financial and military help they had received from the colonists during the war All these factors combined to persuade many English leaders that the colonies needed a major reorganization and that the central authority should be in London The English leaders set in motion plans to give London more control over the government of the colonies and these plans were eventually a big part of the colonial resentment towards British imperial policies that led to the American Revolution The war had an equally profound but very different effect on the American colonists First of all the colonists had learned to unite against a common foe Before the war the thirteen colonies had found almost no common ground and they coexisted in mutual distrust But now they had seen that together they could be a power to be reckoned with And the next common foe would be Britain With France removed from North America the vast interior of the continent lay open for the Americans to colonize But The English government decided otherwise To induce a controlled population movement they issued a Royal Proclamation that prohibited settlement west of the line drawn along the crest of the Alleghenny Mountains and to enforce that measure they authorized a permanent army of 10 000 regulars paid for by taxes gathered from the colonies most importantly the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act This infuriated the Americans who after having been held back by the French now saw themselves stopped by the British in their surge west For the Indians of the Ohio Valley the third major party in the French and Indian War the British victory was disastrous Those tribes that had allied themselves with the French had earned the enmity of the victorious English The Iroquois Confederacy which had allied themselves with Britain fared only slightly better The alliance quickly unraveled and the Confederacy began to crumble from within The Iroquois continued to contest the English for control of the Ohio Valley for another fifty years but they were never again in a position to deal with their white rivals on terms of military or political equality 2 United States Constitution reflects Revolutionary Democratic Republican Ideals a Federalism Sharing of power between the national and state governments b Constitution i National government had power over taxes and armed forces ii Source of power was balanced between state and national federalism iii Equal representation of states in the senate iv Population determined representation in the house of representatives v To pass amendment they needed 3 4ths of states approval vi President and supreme court decide cases vii To keep restraint on the powers of the national government the government was divided into 3 systems which set up a system of checks and balances c Bill of Rights i Guaranteed religious freedom freedom of the press right to fair and legal trial by a jury ii Written summary of rights and liberties that cannot be taken away d The British King oppressed the American people they set up a government that gave the power to the people so they could keep the national government in check II Short Identification 1 Discourse on Western planting a North America would be key to English trade b English colonization would lead to new jobs raw materials beneficially supply solution to over crowding cut down on crime in England and lead to less jobless people c They sugar coated everything and thought new land would lead to new opportunities 2 Triangular Trade carried slaves cash crops and manufactured goods between West Africa Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers with the northern colonies of British North America especially New England sometimes taking over the role of Europe a Benefitted England because they got much needed cash crops from the colonies which had much better farming techniques and worked a lot harder at farming b Benefitted West Africa because English traded goods for slaves English goods not only were useful but also had good exchange value Though unethical it helped the economy c Benefitted New England colonies because they used slaves to get farm work and housework done more efficiently The slave trade gave the colonies more help to make cash crops which they sold to England for more slaves 3 Mayflower Compact Written on board the Mayflower to bind Mayflower people on board together and assure King James I that the Indians wouldn t rebel and claim the land Basically it was to cover their backs in case the Plymouth didn t work out they wanted the King on their side a Arrived in colonies with a way to settle disputes already installed b Believed everyone everywhere had God in their life who was affecting everyone everything and every decision c Native Americans believed in spirits however their people were dying of disease and the people from England were not so they decided to convert in hopes of them not dying from disease 4 John Locke English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential enlightenment thinkers a Two Treaties of Government God


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