Mizzou HIST 1100 - American Journey- Chapter One (7 pages)

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American Journey- Chapter One



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American Journey- Chapter One

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Pages:
7
School:
University of Missouri
Course:
Hist 1100 - Survey of American History to 1865
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American Journey Chapter 1 1 1 Native American Societies before 1492 Columbus landed on a tiny Caribbean island in 1492 o 70 million people lived on north and south America Hunters Harvesters and Traders Earliest Americans hunted mammoths bison and other large animals Efficient tools led to over hunting spear points Over hunting along with climate change led to extinction of many large animals 8000bce 1500bce Native populations increased o Men did hunting and fishing o Women stayed at home harvesting and preparing wild plant foods along with taking care of children o Developed complex networks of trade marriage partners laborers ideas and religions practices The Development of Agriculture Social Changes followed behind agriculture development Farming supplied a more secure food supply than hunting Women s status grew due to their farming abilities Diversity in culture areas developed due to farming o Geographical regions inhabited by peoples who share similar basic patterns of subsistence and social organizations Nonfarming Societies Agriculture was impossible in environment of arctic and subarctic Inuit s and Aleuts moved each season to fish and hunt whales seals and other large sea animals In the brief summers they would collect berries Northwest Coast Densely populated and abundant natural resources o No farming o Local rivers and forests supplied fish game and edible plants Farther South present day Cali hunter gathers lived in smaller villages o Indians gathered acorns o Warm and dry climate Mesoamerican Civilizations Central Mexico to Central America Birth place of agriculture in North America 1200bce complex literate urban cultures emerged Olmec s 1200bce 400bce Mexico s gulf coast o Built cities with large pyramids o Developed religious practices with human sacrifices o Devised calendar and writing systems Mayans o 150 900 CE o Southern Yucatan o Influenced Mesoamerica through trade and conquest Aztecs o 1100 1520 CE o Warrior people who dominated the Valley of Mexico from 1100 until their conquest in 1519 1521 by Spanish soldiers led by Hernan Cortes o Capital Tenochtitlan o Tenochtitlan was the center of the religious life they sacrificed human victims to their Gods o Neighbors submitted to Aztecs out of fear not out of loyalty The Caribbean Islanders 5000 BCE Survived at first by hunting and gathering The islands were unstable when the Europeans arrived Native Americans were competing for dominance due to the collapse of societies 1 2 West African Societies 1492 6 out of every 7 people who crossing the Atlantic to the Americas were African Arrived as slaves transported by Europeans eager to exploit their labor Geographical and Political Differences The greatest city was Timbuktu with 70 000 residents in the 15th century Home of the Songhai Empire A Powerful West African state that flourished between 1450 and 1591 when it fell to a Moroccan invasion Center of trade and government Artisans and Merchants o Skilled artisans and metalworkers o Made bronze sculptures and miniature gold weights o Used skills to forge weapons o Trade between West Africa Southern Europe and the Middle East o Traded gold pepper leather and Ivory to north Africa for salt Farming and Gender Roles o Men prepared fields while women cultivated and harvested the crops 1 3 o Men hunted and herded cattle Women owned and cared for other livestock goats and sheep o Traded goods to local markets Family Structure and Religion Family connections were important to define each persons place in society Groups of families formed clans that further extended an individuals kin ties within the village Believed spiritual forces suffused the natural world Preserved their faith through oral traditions not written text Islam began to take root in early tenth century introduced by Muslim traders and soldiers Merchants were more likely to convert but Farmers stuck with the religious rituals that focused on agricultural fertility and resisted Islam European Merchants in West Africa and the Slave Trade 1430 s Portuguese found the greatest source of wealth they could extract from Africa Slaves Many slaves lost freedom from being captured in war kidnapped or punished for crime Many slaves who ended up in New World were actually captivated by Africans first and then traded Western Europe on the Eve of Exploration Columbus sailed from Spain in 1492 1337 1453 England and France had fought a series of conflicts known as the hundred year war 1347 1351 Black Death killed a lot of the European population already suffering from malnutrition 1 3 of Europeans died To help the economy recover they became more efficient by relying on technological improvements banking accounting and insurance Europe had a stronger more productive economy in 1500 than ever before The Consolidation of Political and Military Authority Military power went hand in hand with the strengthening of political authority Early 1600 s England s henry VIII sent soldiers to conquer Ireland Reconquista The long struggle ending in 1492 during which Spanish Christians reconquered the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim Occupiers who first invaded in the eighth century Religious Conflict and the Protestant Reformation For over 1000 years Catholic Christianity had united the Western Europeans in one faith 16th century the Catholic Church had accumulated immense wealth and power In reaction many Christians mostly in Northern Europe began to criticize the popes and the church 1517 Martin Luther realized people were putting their faith on good deeds not salvation He challenged people to realize that they were saved by the grace of god This inspired the Catholic Church and became known as the reformation Reformation 16th century movement to reform the Catholic Church that ultimately led to the founding of the new protestant Christian religious groups Protestants Europeans who supported reform of the Catholic Church in the wake of Martin Luther s critique of church practices and doctrine Predestination The belief that God decided at the moment of Creation which humans would achieve salvation Contact Portugal Spain France and England competed to establish footholds on other continents in an intense scramble for riches and dominance The Lure of Discovery Certain princes and merchants anticipated spiritual and material benefits from voyages of discovery Including making new Christian converts and blocking Islam expansion Increased trade Advances in Navigation and Shipbuilding o 1500


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